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Scotch Snaps in Hip Hop

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The Scotch Snap is everywhere in modern hip hop - a metrically accented sixteenth note followed by a dotted eighth note. Why is it everywhere? And where did it come from? The answer lies in how American speak english. A Study of Rhythm in London: Is Syllable-timing a Feature of Multicultural London English? https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1205&context=pwpl Philip Tagg’s 1 hour documentary on the Scotch Snap! http://tagg.org/Clips/HTML5/ScotchSnapAll_VP8.webm Another fantastic lecture by Philip Tagg if you want to get into this stuff https://vimeo.com/278543832 Music and the Brain: The Music of Language and the Language of Music https://youtu.be/2oMvtw4aeEY Music-Language Correlations and the “Scotch Snap” http://davidtemperley.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/temperley-temperley-mp.pdf David Bruce Composer: How the way you TALK affects the music you write https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HeHWJ8-_2Pk PBS Soundfield - How Trap Music Took Over https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKicD86F7KA Les "SCOTCH SNAPS" de Lil Wayne à Purcell [ANALYSE DE MONA LISA] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYv2PCAocfw The Scotch Snap from Strathspey to Rap - Wayne Marshall/wayneandwax https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeRa0oR6iqQ The Origins of Strathspey https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LP188D6Phlo Rhythm in the speech and music of jazz and riddim musicians https://repository.wellesley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1118&context=scholarship Perception and acquisition of linguistic rhythm by infants http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.362.2572&rep=rep1&type=pdf A Comparison of Rhythm in English Dialects and Music https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ab5a/3735a4daab3fb9f20374f40e3502ebf4f541.pdf African Banjo Playing! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzt0v9roU6g (⌐■_■) EXAMPLES OF SCOTCH SNAP IN HIP HOP/POP (used in this video, there are way, way more) Soulja Boy - Pretty Boy Swag Meek Mill - I B On Dat Feat. Nicki Minaj, French Montana & Fabolous Beyoncé - Drunk in Love Ariana Grande - 7 Rings Ariana Grande - thank u, next Childish Gambino - Worldstar Bazzi - Mine Lizzo - Juice Wifisfuneral - It Don’t Matter Cardi B, Bad Bunny, J Balvin - I Like It Zedd, Marren Moris, Grey - The Middle ALSO FEATURED J Balvin, William William - Mi Gente Vybz Kartel - Come Home Kery James - Mouhammad Alix SCOTCH SNAP EXAMPLES in Scottish Music Siobhan Miller https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yLrIG51x3Jg Douglas Lawrence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIrZ64-3U8o Andrea Beaton https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYQMncWCbj0 (⌐■_■) ⦿WHAT'S THE BACKGROUND MUSIC?! (my band!)⦿ https://spoti.fi/2AKAAQ6 ⦿ Adam Neely T-shirts! ⦿ https://teespring.com/stores/adam-neely-merchandise ⦿ SUPPORT ME ON PATREON ⦿ http://www.patreon.com/adamneely ⦿ FOLLOW ME ON THE INTERNETS ⦿ http://www.facebook.com/adamneely http://www.instagram.com/its_adamneely ⦿ Check out some more of my music ⦿ http://sungazermusic.bandcamp.com http://insideoutsidemusic.bandcamp.com http://adamneelymusic.bandcamp.com Peace, Adam
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Text Comments (2191)
Adam Neely (10 days ago)
Hey everybody, maybe consider throwing a few bucks to my Patreon? https://www.patreon.com/adamneely This content is entirely funded by Patreon, not sponsors, so any little bit helps. Thanks for watching!
Shane (1 day ago)
Silly rabbit, Europeans don't have culture.
Kayswave Tha Lez (3 days ago)
This was musically brilliant thank you for these lessons
greater reliance on right-hemisphere structures during singing compared to speaking https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001372
Isn't Hip Hop closer to talking than music anyway? the older language is the more MUSICAL or tonal - so the original human culture - the San Bushmen language - has the most sounds and most musical tones (and is the most sophisticated culture on the planet with NO war, no rape and ecologically sustainable). Funny how if language is more like MUSIC then the healing songs of the San bushmen intentionally use GIBBERISH words for their music. So much for phonetic semantic "meaning." The tones as frequency pitch have more meaning as emotions then do the "rhythms" of phonetic-based languages.
Christopher Rees (44 minutes ago)
Did i just hear that right? Arianna Grande is being accused of cultural appropriation for scotch snaps from African Americans??? Lmao
Ty Hens (3 hours ago)
So proud for the Lizzo feature 😅
ParaCHUTE (3 hours ago)
Great video Adam! 👏🏽👏🏽
blasianFMA (4 hours ago)
when you said "ttention to-the rh-ythms that-you speak-in" I was expecting a beat drop to carry us out.
Soooooooo You say the Scottish snap that we hear today derived from Scottish music. BUT the premise is that music is inspired by our language. Which kind of implies the discovery and application of this snap is built into the language. Which would mean the inspiration for the snap is our English language. But then u draw this really hard line to Scottish music as the originators. You see where it gets murky. Maybe this makes sense but unless our modern English itself funnels directly through a Scottish filter, then this snap seems like a universally available discovery as oppose to an invention type thing. Really can someone marry these two ideas for me, is the current hip hop snap have a direct lineage to a Scottish root, or is it built into the language of English, which as far as I know didnt exclusively come through a Scottish hose.
kald0rei (4 hours ago)
Snoop Dogg did it best
peekpen (6 hours ago)
Prosody. :-)
Josh Embrey (7 hours ago)
Bonus points for the ratchet joke.
David Laird (8 hours ago)
Aye , clearly all you yanks need Tae stop Culturally Appropriatin the Scotch Snap! By the way , Cultural Appropriation is total BS!
Graphene (8 hours ago)
"ratcheted-up" is right 😲
Mateusz143 (8 hours ago)
Dear diary, today was another day my mind was blown away out of nowhere
Mike Uy (9 hours ago)
Hey adam! I have a question for your next Q & A: how to become a session musician?
Deus Vult (9 hours ago)
I never thought I'd get an English lesson from a Musician
Jeremiah Thomas (9 hours ago)
Okay you got me. Poor editing but whatever
Mutantcy1992 (9 hours ago)
Nice short form critique on the quick jump to accusations of cultural appropriation people like to throw out without knowing the background.
CheshireCat (9 hours ago)
I've never smashed a subscribe button harder in my life
jojibot (10 hours ago)
You so fckin precious when you smile
Alex Simon (10 hours ago)
For the next Q&A: Hi Adam, Do you think you could ever do a video where you analyze anything from the marching arts (DCI, WGI, BOA, etc.)? Just something that really piques my interest as a marching snare drummer and would be interesting to see you take a stab at. Thanks!
Ezechiel N'goran (11 hours ago)
Wow, I am really impressed by how much effort you put in researching facts. Thank you for sharing.
muscovyducks (12 hours ago)
dat stick
Man ya beat me to it. Your video still would’ve been better anyway. This is an incredible explanation.
Jisung Seo (13 hours ago)
Adam, maybe something for a q+a What would use as a substitute, or just something that gives the same usefulness that singing your solos gives, but for wind instruments. If you sing whatever you solo on a string instrument what would you do if you played trumpet or saxophone, where you can’t sing and play.
John MacDonald (14 hours ago)
Hey that's my accent!! Also it's normally called Lallands Scots accent, but I guess you were going for the scotch snap there too
antoinebugleboy (14 hours ago)
Ha! I pointed this out to my friends, but said, "Why does every rap song these days sound like the dude has hiccups?"
David Russell (15 hours ago)
You're asking for money from musicians? 💰
Braden Pittman (16 hours ago)
This is very good
Najey Rifai (16 hours ago)
Is this why Haikus sound shit in English? The rhythm of the poem just doesn't match the language.
Arsène Ntibushitse (17 hours ago)
Je pensais pas voir Kerry James dans une de tes vidéos @AdamNeely
oliver sutton (18 hours ago)
Scotch is what Americans call whiskey, people from Scotland(like me) are Scottish or Scots NOT Scotch.
Mangocado (19 hours ago)
I'm in love. Subbed.
Eric Winter (19 hours ago)
One of my favorite videos you’ve done so far. I’m a linguist and musician, so it was satisfying to both of the nerds in me. A minor correction. At 5:00—wrong “its”. In any case. Awesome video. It was definitely a rhythmic phenomenon I had noticed, but it’s cool to get some background and analysis. Thanks for putting this together!
Oliver Fenelon Ché (20 hours ago)
SMACKING VOX IN THE FACE is the aesthetic of this channel.
DJGOBOX (21 hours ago)
Very interesting! Thank you!
Ben McCaulley (21 hours ago)
*David Bruce Composer wants to know your location*
Michael Rinus (21 hours ago)
But does that explain why Germany clap on 1 and 3? I suppose it does...
Sputnik I (21 hours ago)
I don't know if he was the first to do this in popular music, but have you heard Adriano Celentano's Prisencolinensinainciusol? https://youtu.be/-VsmF9m_Nt8 He was a big fan of rock music, but wasn't fluent in English and found Italian ill-suited to the genre so he improvised gibberish English based on what he thought it sounded like. It would be interesting to do a statistical analysis of the most prevalent English phonemes and put together the minimum required for suitable lyrics to get something more accurate, but a big thing going for the Celentano tune is the sheer attitude behind it. Enjoy?
Blobthespot Kedsick (23 hours ago)
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Audio Maverick (23 hours ago)
Wow do this for Australian hip hop, I wouldn't mind knowing how our English is being used in music.
Patrick Kennedy (1 day ago)
In choral music, non English speaking composers often accent typically unaccented syllables. The same is true for English translations of latin sacred texts. Now I know why. Funny how language influences music.
KwangHoon Han (1 day ago)
Damn, this is just golden! Thanks a lot!!!!
Kris Fields (1 day ago)
PUT YOUR PINKY RINGS UP TO THE MOON!!
boogabuga (1 day ago)
Am I the only one that hates this trend?
Jack Timber (1 day ago)
Never seen such a good and well deserved view to like to dislike ratio
Queen Zey (1 day ago)
modern Vsauce
Avihs King (1 day ago)
I wish I could take the data of this video and install it into every rapper and hip-hop fan's head. It'd change a lot of perspectives.
David Pipes Music (1 day ago)
Outro was good
niyah w (1 day ago)
Oh yeah, I’ve heard it. It’s gotten especially aggravating lately. Thanks for giving me some facts about it!
JTR (1 day ago)
I'd love to see him do an analysis of the English accent vs. American accent when singing. I feel like it used to be a lot harder to tell someone was English when they sang than it is now.
DEKhan (1 day ago)
Really interesting video, thank you.
Fred Pilcher (1 day ago)
Facinating!
Vojin Milojkovic (1 day ago)
I am not Ariana fan but people cant wait to nitpick on something diversity, cultural appropriation, whats next? p.s Great video as always ☻♥☻
Wes Netmo (1 day ago)
can u explain why new music sucks thanks
Bobandii (1 day ago)
bruh beat at 1:08 goes hard
Kacper Snicket (1 day ago)
it's hilarious people get offended by Arianna using it in her music in the first place
Dr Jim Nielson (1 day ago)
The George Steiner of music - so deeply conversant, so much sprezzatura!
Luke Anderson (1 day ago)
This is great and all but how good a band name would "amphibrachs" be??
Carter Hoffman (1 day ago)
This episode was sponsored by: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
David B (1 day ago)
omfg I read it as "Crotch Snap" and held onto that until you said the term was "Scotch Snap" a minute into the video rofl..
Taterz (1 day ago)
stop teaching me useful music theory in a way i can understand! i demand more obfuscation!
Just Having Fun (1 day ago)
I would like to see this type of analysis performed on the Psalms in their original Hebrew. We have a tradition that certain melodies sung in the synagogue services have been conserved from the time of the Holy Temple. Although today's pronunciation made slightly different from that of Biblical times, the rhythmic analysis could serve as a guide post to the types of melodies that accompanied these words.
WhosTheFuckingLion (1 day ago)
This is very intresting! i always thought Duane Allmans slide playing sounded like southern drawl. Maybe there is some theoretical/linguistic explanation for this! Great video!
BucketofCrust (1 day ago)
Is this the reebok or the nike?
sefp (1 day ago)
Scotch snaps sound nothing like african american hyphy flow. Europeans always want claim origin of african culture. When they have been doong most things hundredds and thousands of years before europeans caught on to them
Milk Tea (5 hours ago)
+sefp You're not making any sense. No one said the Scotts "invented" this rhythm. They're just known for it. It's one of their defining sounds, lmao. Apparently my point went over your head. Something as basic as a type of rhythm can't be owned by anyone. It's impossible. That's like a single culture claiming ownership of braids. Oh, let me guess, you think Africans have sole "ownership" of braids and that Europeans and other cultures simply copied Africans? Get real. My point is that basic components (like basic rhythms, hairstyles, maybe foods) of a culture aren't "owned" by that culture. Necessity is the mother of all invention-- non-African people groups were clever enough to figure out how to braid/pleat, to figure out rhythm patterns they liked, basic methods of cooking and preparing food. But in spite of some basic level of cultural components being the same across all people groups, all cultures tend to have a few variations on those cultural components that become attached to that culture's identity. "Scotch snaps" are simple and basic and were probably not "discovered" only by the Scots, but it was a a prominent rhythm that was attached to their identity more than any other culture that might have used that rhythm as well. Hence the name.
sefp (19 hours ago)
Milk Tea just because europeans wore clothoes doesnt mean they invented them and every non european learn to produce clothes fron europeans. Same flawed origin logic from this guy. And alot of europeans do this
sefp (19 hours ago)
Milk Tea everyone was a fish millions of years ago. What relevance is that. Land and dirt is owned. Water is owned. Everything. Are you pro theft and fraud ? Or communist ? Trade marks, patents, intillectual property and copyright exist for a reason.
Milk Tea (1 day ago)
"How dare a 'white' culture be known for something! APPROPREEASHUN" More like you've been brainwashed into the idea that any one culture can have sole "ownership" of something as basic as rhythm. LMAO, everyone was "African" hundreds of thousands of years ago theoretically.
m gee (1 day ago)
finally now i know the name of that spanish song
sefp (1 day ago)
It has nothing to do with s scotish or european. Its african jamaican nature and african american. Its a flow rythm. Mimicking dj on off/ drop in out when mixing in and out of tracks.
auzio (1 day ago)
You fuck with French rap!?
Zac Symons (1 day ago)
Pillow talking is another good example
frzferdinand72 (1 day ago)
Takeoff's verse in T-Shirt was almost pure Scotch Snap
Dude, you are a true scholar! Really great work. I love your videos.
Cyan (1 day ago)
"Modern Hip-Hop" should be called something else. It sounds nothing like Hip-Hop.
Cyan (10 hours ago)
+Der Brownie The first part of my comment, yes. The second not so much.
Der Brownie (11 hours ago)
that's like ur opinion dude
fabolify (1 day ago)
Scotch snaps in elite Polish hip hop: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhSJ_FgKRn8
capedmarauder (1 day ago)
This is a really fascinating video and so well explained. Who would have thought that that irritating trend came from Scottish music?!
Alex (1 day ago)
its
Mercury Li (1 day ago)
I wonder how you analyze Mandarin hiphop...each character is just 1 syllable
nuri özlü (1 day ago)
who are those 81 jerks that gives a thumbsdown to this video ? i really wonder !
LordWhorfinX2 (1 day ago)
Looks like blacks are culturally appropriating something here.
Andrei Sîncrăian (1 day ago)
EQD Rainbow Machine spotted
Anderson 63 Scooper (1 day ago)
LOOK at ALL the BOOKS I HAVE. I'M a SMART boy LOOK at ME.
Jesse Santana (1 day ago)
Hey man, great video as always! I just discovered your channel a couple of weeks ago and I’m obsessed and learning so much. Gonna be honest tho, really just commenting to congratulate you on 666k followers!
J Anderson (1 day ago)
Did you get the Spanish words from Hips Don't Lie?
Mcdovin (1 day ago)
*666k subs my dude.*
2SH (2 days ago)
solid stuff! would be cool to hear you break down Cardi B - I Like It!
GraemeMarkNI (2 days ago)
I live in Slovakia, and very often pop music here tries to follow world trends, but sung in Slovak language. The results are somehow off. The rhythms just don't fit the language. After watching this video I tried singing a mundane sentence just to see which rhythm would naturally arise from it... the result was something like a polka... interesting. Waltzes also work pretty well.
Strasthsbey should be pronounced Strahs-bey
Juan Peña (2 days ago)
Hey Adam, here's a question for your next Q&A I am a drummer, but right now what i want is to start composing my own music instead of just playing over what others have composed. I can manage to play tunes on the piano on a kinda decent (but still begginer) level, and i have several ideas that i would like to develop. The problem is that when i try to develop them, everything is just a blur. I try to come up with some chords and a melody, but i always get stuck and dont know how to keep going. My knowledge on music theory is very limited, and i have tried to seek for information but i just dont know where to start. Can you recommend a good begginer book on music theory? What should I learn? Where should I start? (Please keep in mind that my goal is not to be an excelent performer, it is to be able to compose my own music) Thank you very much. Greetings from Uruguay!
Victor Franca (1 day ago)
http://openmusictheory.com
LukeTheNerd (2 days ago)
AYYY CHILDISH GAMBINO
John Adams (2 days ago)
mind blown
BokehDon (2 days ago)
This is nerdy AF and I love it. Great video.
Mr. Soda (2 days ago)
Bro can you stop doing this your gonna ruin music even more
Gustavo Toro (2 days ago)
good video i like
Clyde G (2 days ago)
Cultural appropriation is bullshit 98% of the time
it's 6884 (2 days ago)
AAAAAARGHHHH ADAM!!! 5:00 - "ITS" !!!!
Josh Williams (2 days ago)
As a scientist and a musician, your videos are absolutely exhilarating to watch!
Phillip Isayev (2 days ago)
Dog 1:08 slapped hard af
Sinister Scotsman (2 days ago)
As a scotsman and a musician, this pleases me. Yes, it does indeed.
Pafrla (2 days ago)
Pronounced Strath-Spay
PianoPoops (2 days ago)
Do i have OCD or i start to get pissed when adam starts to breath to much?
Alex Petit-Bianco (2 days ago)
Brilliant - thanks!
Onebadass Pimpadero (2 days ago)
and bob dylan invented rap.

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