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# A Beginner’s Guide To Quantum Computing

More From: Coding Tech
9246 ratings | 521715 views
Dr. Talia Gershon, a materials scientist by training, came to IBM Research in 2012. After 4.5 years of developing next-generation solar cell materials, she got inspired to learn about quantum computing because it might enable all kinds of discoveries (including new materials). Having authored the Beginner's Guide to the QX, she passionately believes that anyone can get started learning quantum! - Maker Faire Bay Area 2017 PERMISSIONS: The original video was published on IBM Research YouTube channel with the Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed). ORIGINAL SOURCE: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S52rxZG-zi0
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binarybox (1 day ago)
Is there a limited range over which entanglement works or is it unlimited? Are most errors caused by trying to monitor the entanglement as this does affect the output?
The video thumbnail looks like a Salvia trip.
peganoske (2 days ago)
Step 1: Governments use quantum computers to hypercontrol over everything. Life looks like a hell of broiler-chicken life. Step 2: Governments compete about who ruined culture more and who make life of their citizens more hellish. AI has appeared. Step 3: AI kills all governments and human rulers. Humans' life improves - now they live in zoos and have free healthy meal regularly. Bonus: Some people come to be pets for AI, they have everything and anything including even stuff and entertainments that were banned or tabooed in pre-AI human societies. Well, all this lucky pets are castrated.
Stefan Mihai Stanescu (2 days ago)
1:32 except the factorial isn't an exponential
greg931 (3 days ago)
intro to superposition https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lZ3bPUKo5zc Just as exciting
Satya Sarma (5 days ago)
Hey bitch(apologies for my language, but usage is to beat your arrogance), the story you say 3:04 to 3:58 is from India and is very famous in India since ancient times. Does that bother you to admit it? Also, what you call Chess has original name "Cahturangaचतुरंगा " means , four divisions of army, which copied over by Arabs as "Shatranj" and into Europe as "Chess".
Richard Cantin (6 days ago)
Awesome video!! It’s the future of computing. Imagine the AI applications. Exciting 🤖
N H (7 days ago)
I suddenly do not give a fuck.
Dino Hauska (7 days ago)
quantum comp.+ AI = BYE, BYE HUMANS....
The TNTBlower77 (8 days ago)
M is for quantum
Martin Pedersen (9 days ago)
The reason is that .. not because ..
Johnny Ramage (9 days ago)
8.04 Communication through Microwaves....5G anyone?
just read the comments and now I feel bad for not noticing the amount of times she says the word "right" and the static noise (even though I was using using headphones).
Ben Dawn (12 days ago)
I would tell this lady to never lecture again until she fixes her habit of saying "right" all the time.
Ian Rivlin (12 days ago)
She lost me after "Good day, ladies and gentlemen".
hatem amine (12 days ago)
ok now i know that i understand nothing in computer quantum
Andrew Nelson (13 days ago)
Good knowledge
Phil Chia (14 days ago)
Everything you knew about math is now out of date.
Mikeyy12 C.Lennz (14 days ago)
It’s not static making that sound. It’s quantum physics. Ewowowoewoww~~~~~~
Kouros Mousavi (14 days ago)
who actually 'dislike's videos like these? who the fuck are you?
somebody301 (15 days ago)
Actually, I knew that the legend says the maker told the king to have 1 grain of rice per chess game played. it is above 10^10
Ivor Šlibar (20 days ago)
number of possible combination is not 10!..
Thatyou GoOn (11 days ago)
yea it is 9!, but hey, it is physics, so it is an reasonable order of magnitude approximation, just off by one xD
Falkor Moonchild (21 days ago)
The original source is a spied genius (abuse crime) who dictated he whole concept in this female voice before including the ibmqx2 concept. He is also the original polyphone voice composer of ~50.000 songs including those always hitting Chard's position no.1 and the master mind of much more like Hollywood's movies and who wonders: most relevant speeches. Result: hugest job creator, most relevant inventor. Here: just a nurd game to trigger personal toward IBM research. This acting b is paid, not so the author yet. #betterbehonest #revelation #espionage #slavery #fraud #alert #makeacurrycagreatagain 📡
But will it run Star Citizen?
Mark Arnott (23 days ago)
HEY🐵 U didnt leave the link 🔗🖇🔗to the Quantum pc 💻 above WTF lazy nerds at work or not 🙊👉🙈👉💩🙋‍♀️
Mark Arnott (23 days ago)
CAN I program the quantum to put all the loose 👛 change in the world into my account?💹 🏧 💱 💳 💲 A-> 1c 😔 here & a 2 cents there👛 ei ei oh 🤪 making sense yet 100000000000000x100x10xmc2ents
Know Lgez (24 days ago)
thanks
Stems Rose (25 days ago)
Okay I gave this video a dislike because of the PragerU add that appeared before this video.
Laurens de Bruijn (27 days ago)
at 4:0-5:0 where there should be a good explanation of superposition and how qubits differ from regular computations the speaker fails to illustrate any of these principle differences. The second half is a sales pitch on how cool IBM is. I had hoped to get a better insight into quantum computing but unfortunately not from this video. edit: I found this explanation by Prof Morello https://youtu.be/g_IaVepNDT4 To be exponentially better
doctortabby (28 days ago)
Excellent, Dr. Gershon. Thanks so much for sharing this excellent introductory video. It was so helpful. Thanks to you all for making this resource available. I plan to go in and (hopefully:-) ) have some fun with it. God bless.
Burger Birger (1 month ago)
Now i know, I'm stupid😁👍
Steve Phillips (1 month ago)
I see there is an app too now! This is exactly what I needed to help me understand. Thanks!
Gospel of Christ (1 month ago)
The 'Good News', Gospel of Salvation [1 Cor. 15:3-4] "I believe, how, Christ died for our sins, that He was buried and that He rose again the third day, amen." Watch the video. http://j.mp/2CUY2s6 Give Christ a chance, believe the gospel, be born again, repent and go back to Heaven. If you do not like Christ's program there, then you can always leave. You have nothing to lose, but everything to gain..
RailFanning & Stuff (1 month ago)
the only use Quantum Computing has in my mind is transmitting Computer code over entangled particles across vast distance in real time
Kreesan Naicker (1 month ago)
But can it run crysis
Vishal Mishra (1 month ago)
What is the simplest quantum algorithm (combination of quantum gates) that solves a real-world-moderately-useful problem that is reasonably understandable by a median-smart ordinary software developer (not dumb and not genius with average classical computing knowledge) ?
Gr Gr (1 month ago)
Can you expllain how stargates work?
Gr Gr (1 month ago)
yes but all know this computers already exists but are hidden to the public the public have only access to the shit
Tony Zinno (1 month ago)
Got some shitty audio Interference too... junky, I wanted to hear this lecture too..
ebin jose (1 month ago)
How did you figure out about the 10 people can sit 3.6 million? 10 factorial?
Thatyou GoOn (11 days ago)
10 factorial means 10*9*8*...*2*1. it is because there are first 10 free seats, then 9, then 8.. etc so the possible choices decreases wit 1 until there are no places left.
Dzintars Klavins (1 month ago)
Hmmm 9.223372036854776e+18 rice grains... in months... :)
At 5m0s you show a 1-qubit vs a 5-qubit sphere. But, aren't there already UNCOUNTABLY INFINITELY many possible combinations of states |0> & |1> over the reals or complexes? t*|0>+(1-t)*|1> for any real t in the interval (0,1) is uncountably infinitely many. So, why are more qubits needed?
0m50s At her wedding? Is this material scientist a millionaire?
Classical computers are racist because they play only classical music, whereas quantum computers can play jazz! (jk!!)
Great
ONE TRUTH (1 month ago)
Outdated technology. LoL. As I have figured out how to utilize my own being to render all this quantum computing technology useless and 100% OBSOLETE. WHY DO SO MANY HUMANS KEEP FALLING FOR THIS USELESS CRAP. IT SERVES NO PURPOSE. HAHAHAHA. USE YOUR OWN MIND.BODY.SOUL. Waste of time.
Akash Kumar (1 month ago)
Wow...i want to meet this lady ...lot of discussion and queries
Lujie Zhou (1 month ago)
How does quantum computer change the way data scientists work? Will quantum computers eventually be attuned to the existing programming languages or will a whole new peculiar language be developed that whoever wants to work with quantum computers has to learn?
Wild Gorgh (2 months ago)
Let get little more specific about this quatem cumputer. So what is the memory map, how do u control and access it's internal operation , how many control registers, data register and status registers does it have and how big are they 8 , 16 , 32 ,64, 128 bits or... ..
Ambient Morality (1 month ago)
You're asking questions that don't make sense for a quantum computer. Registers do not exist on a quantum computer, all you have are n logical qubits. Each qubit can be put into a superposition of two states, then the state vector corresponding to that superposition can be rotated arbitrarily. Also, some pairs of qubits can be entangled by applying the controlled-NOT operation (performs a specific rotation if the control qubit is on – if the control qubit is in a superposition, too, the result will be a more complex, entangled state). Input is provided by reseting all qubits so that they have the same initial state, then telling the quantum computer what rotations to perform and what qubit pairs to entangle in what order. Access is provided by measuring one or all of the qubits at any point during or after the computation is complete; this causes the qubits to collapse into a classical state. Worth noting that I'm describing the IBM architecture here - exact implementations differ by researcher.
Ivan Jovanović (2 months ago)
How old is she??? 27 or 55?
Kevvers (2 months ago)
she never really described what she means by "superposition" which is where I fell off
Kevvers (1 month ago)
thanks :)
Ambient Morality (1 month ago)
A superposition is a complex linear combination of states. For example, if you have two states (A) and (B) x(A)+y(B) is a complex linear combination of the two states (where x, y are complex numbers). There is an additional constraint - the sum of the squares of the coefficients, or amplitudes (x and y in the previous example) must equal 1. This is because the probability of a superposition being measured as (A) is x^2 and the probability for (B) is y^2.
Emerson D'Vortex (2 months ago)
Computers give me a headache . Try to take one with you when you die , see how far you get . Better to live a spiritual life .
Warren McClure (2 months ago)
Thank you IBM, this is some next level stuff(:
prdi ludi (2 months ago)
Sooo what happens to cyber currency when this beast hits the shelves?
James Allen jr. (2 months ago)
I'm not a dumb guy... but I got the feeling I was being scammed at one point when she was explaining about the Joesephson thingy, and the Resonator... I'd almost swear she was repeating something completely made up to fool... us. I'm not saying it's not real... I think it works because we actually live in a more multidimensional 'world' than is commonly known.
Tyler Jones (2 months ago)
Take a drink ever time she says Right... Right
NDX-1 (2 months ago)
So COOL! 😍
King Kong (2 months ago)
First thought, God I'm dumb! Second thought, but can she play Little Wing on a strat?. Conclusion: She is really smart, but so are you, you just chose different paths. That's why this world is so exciting!
John Tichenor (2 months ago)
I use a big max tape measure??
Arnon Tillmann (2 months ago)
I'm 24 yrs old, so, lets simulate my next 5 years of life and figure out what it will look like. I wish... haha
Jon Bailey (2 months ago)
Does the human brain itself use quantum computing to process thoughts, reasoning and memory? How does our brain decide whether we will wear a red shirt or a blue shirt to dinner? Is our brain more akin to a binary digital computer or even an analog computer?
Ambient Morality (1 month ago)
Unknown, but the brain's computational model is quite likely to be purely classical but more analog. Synapses have stronger connections when the potential difference between them is higher, for example - this is a continuous variable, not discrete.
Jon Bailey (2 months ago)
(Classical) binary digital computing is like the real number system. Quantum computing is like the imaginary number system. Is this a good or bad analogy?
Ambient Morality (1 month ago)
I don't know if there's a great analogy, but the fact that amplitudes can be complex numbers helps a lot. Worth noting that the imaginary number system is not useful on its own, but complex numbers are (because they're algebraically closed).
Jon Bailey (2 months ago)
Quantum computing may someday be a boon to advanced statistics, complex analyses, forensics, complex project management and complex what-if scenarios. Situations with a myriad of variables.
Jon Bailey (2 months ago)
How many possible ways can ships be arranged on the Battleship game board?
Jon Bailey (2 months ago)
No, wives should be seated across from men at dinner tables. The number will be somewhat less than 10 factorial if one takes into consideration table manners and etiquette.
Sean Liu (2 months ago)
I think I cracked the code, for anyone interested please msg me “only if you think are one of us”
chris4072511 (2 months ago)
Senpai Blitz (2 months ago)
Nano.. nano .. nano :)
baron villa (2 months ago)
yeah! uh... so .. simple... just apply phases to the qubits thing to get superposition and viola! quantum computing! seriously it cant get any simpler.
Listening to Dr. Gershon talk about quantum computing makes me remember what i loved about science when I was a kid, that "oooh" moment when things make sense are a wonderful thing.
Jarmahent (2 months ago)
Lost me at 6:24
marzeepants (2 months ago)
These damn technologists/liberals talkin bout Qubits like every other invention in the name of "progress", as if it wasn't already impossible enough to have a family meal (praise jesus) without everybody staring at their GameBoys or myPhones or whatever. Also, pretty sure girl-genius meant to say "q-ball" , not "qubits"? I don't know what the hell this post-graduate's goin on about - but what I DO know is that GOD (and he IS real) does not approve of these heathens moving the q-ball to wherever they damn well please. I DO NOT CARE HOW ENTANGLED THE DAMN Q-BALL is for heaven's sake. Plus, GOD don't scratch in pool ya'll, so it's a moot point. And one more thing, it doesn't take classical super computer, let alone a 0 degree Kelvin ABAQUS OF SIN, to optimally seat 10 guests at a dinner table. Unless the guests are the Real Housewives of Atlanta.
thanksfernuthin (2 months ago)
To take advantage of this wouldn't you need qubit memory as well? Would you need microwave emitters for each qubit stored? Do you foresee this becoming mass producible at some point? Would you need connections/wires to transmit qubits instead of 1's and 0's? If the connections to the processor and the memory is still zeros and ones I would imagine you're not going to improve much. The bottleneck the rest of the system would represent would necessarily make the quantum processor of little value (as I understand it now).
Ambient Morality (1 month ago)
You never move qubits around. You issue commands to perform operations on qubits using a classical computer, which is still really fast. Quantum computers are asymptotically fast at certain types of problems - they perform drastically less computations than a classical computer would to solve the same problem. So the classical computer's speed is barely relevant.
Sean Regehr (2 months ago)
It has to be said until you fully understand quantum forces, you cannot build any reliable technology. It is the exact same as building on the sandy foundation and it will give way sooner or later. There are certain basic principles this quantum computing overlooks, as it most likely the cause of the main issues with understanding and working on such a problem. FYI - The notion that something can be in a super position is wrong and inaccurate. Things can only exist or not exist, and if they exist then they can have a range of value(s). The superposition state is being interpreted incorrectly. In reality what you are seeing is interference, which causes the state to become obscured. I am not telling you why, other than your foundational knowledge is lacking. Again you must first fully understand quantum forces before you can build anything worthwhile. It is the foundation. Just like any building, if the foundation is not build correctly the entire structure is compromised.
Ambient Morality (1 month ago)
No, your foundational knowledge is lacking, probably because you watched a bunch of popsci videos about quantum computing and never bothered to look at either the math or the massive body of experimental evidence around it.
Hans Wagenmakers (2 months ago)
Thank you for the explenation. Still I dont know how the seating problem of a round table with 10 persons can be solved. How does the quantum computer help? Where do you see practical applications of the quantum computer?
Recently I had luch with friends and we were 14 people around a table, I asked them in how many ways we could sit, the highest guess was about 20000. Everybody was shocked when I told them that it is more than 87178 millions...
SAN-Geetha Raj (2 months ago)
nice
fthis1234567 (2 months ago)
cringey...
Jean-Pierre Rupp (2 months ago)
This is the best explanation that I have found so far on the subject. Thank you!
David Keane (2 months ago)
True quantum uses power from alternative universes. So a real computer will not calculate every calculation with 1 - 0, 1+ 0 etc but it will calculate one answer on one computer but can recall every other answer that any other quantum computer did in every reality that ran the test. There could be more possible answers from alternative realities than available from one stand alone q machine that imitates 0 + 1. We are getting there but from this video research is still in a 2D flat plane with transmitters.
Aj Perez (2 months ago)
Why isn't there volume?
David Porowski (2 months ago)
Like & Subscribe OMG, does your Q processor support ZFS (cloud storage)? I can see using this processor for solving Maxwell's equations simultaneously.; Nice😎
Peter Tremblay (3 months ago)
Lot of bla bla bla from a stupid specie undergoing his own extinction!
J Wang (3 months ago)
You got some quantum interference on your microphone !
Baum Kuchen (3 months ago)
But will it blend ?
Daneel Douglass (3 months ago)
Like how do i get smart enough to understand/comprehend what she is saying? What is super position. I googled it and it just led to another rabbit hole. HOW DO I BECOME SMART TO FIND VIDEOS LIKE THIS MEANINGFUL?
Mare Graphix (3 months ago)
It would be helpful if you put the web address in your text. For others to copy and paste easily, I am including it here: http://ibm.biz/qx-introduction
Youcef Zaouali (3 months ago)
Quantum computing is all fine but definitely a thing for the future why not talk about light based solutions? Why is this a taboo for the big players in microelectronics. Anyway here is a representation of a realistic solution when it comes to improving computing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzCw841mMrs and it doesn't use more than the properties of light. By the way I'm looking for partners and support for my project so if you feel up to it let me know in my blog or you tube channel: You tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzCw841mMrs Blog: https://opticalprocessor.blogspot.com/
StringGene (3 months ago)
Makes more sense to network 10 classic computers and a defined random generator. This is just a hobby:)
BLAIR M Schirmer (3 months ago)
Stop saying "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" "right?" Annoying, right?
glessie ann bulaquena (3 months ago)
I DONT KNOW IF ANYONE HAS NOTICED THE SIMIILIARATY OF QUANTAM HARDWARE AND THE LAYOUT OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE NORTH POLE AND THE SURROUNDING LAND MASS JUST SAYING,...VER INTERESTING ,...
No she did not explain in an understandable way for a layman. She used have used an example and spent some time on it, and used some animation perhaps. She is an expert in quantum computers and cannot come up with a clear usable animation in her lecture?
Armaan Soni (3 months ago)
amazing video and the website too, thanks a lot!
Aiden Richardson (3 months ago)
right
Maria Grigorescu (3 months ago)
wouldn't an arrangement of 10 people around a round table be 9! not 10! because the table is circular????
Jacob Schwartz (3 months ago)
The number of ways to seat 10 people around a table is actually 9! The initial placement of the first person is arbitrary, and then you can seat the other 9 around that person however you want.
Fedi Riahi (3 months ago)
As an engineering student who just learn what quantum mechanics is this is absolutely mind-blowing to me watching the video made wish I was there to go give you guys a big hug for the clear work and dedication and love you have given this project and I finally reignited my thirst for knowledge This is just amazing <3
BangDroid (3 months ago)
I hope they don't set their Q computer up like their PA system