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Polyadenylation of mRNA (poly a tail)
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule. The poly(A) tail consists of multiple adenosine monophosphates; in other words, it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases. In eukaryotes, polyadenylation is part of the process that produces mature messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation. It, therefore, forms part of the larger process of gene expression. The process of polyadenylation begins as the transcription of a gene finishes, or terminates. The 3'-most segment of the newly made RNA is first cleaved off by a set of proteins; these proteins then synthesize the poly(A) tail at the RNA's 3' end. In some genes, these proteins may add a poly(A) tail at any one of several possible sites. Therefore, polyadenylation can produce more than one transcript from a single gene (alternative polyadenylation), similar to alternative splicing.[1] The poly(A) tail is important for the nuclear export, translation, and stability of mRNA. The tail is shortened over time, and, when it is short enough, the mRNA is enzymatically degraded.[2] However, in a few cell types, mRNAs with short poly(A) tails are stored for later activation by re-polyadenylation in the cytosol.[3] In contrast, when polyadenylation occurs in bacteria, it promotes RNA degradation.[4] This is also sometimes the case for eukaryotic non-coding RNAs.[5] The polyadenylation machinery in the nucleus of eukaryotes works on products of RNA polymerase II, such as precursor mRNA. Here, a multi-protein complex (see components on the right) cleaves the 3'-most part of a newly produced RNA and polyadenylates the end produced by this cleavage. The cleavage is catalysed by the enzyme CPSF[11] and occurs 10--30 nucleotides downstream of its binding site.[16] This site is often the sequence AAUAAA on the RNA, but variants of it that bind more weakly to CPSF exist.[17] Two other proteins add specificity to the binding to an RNA: CstF and CFI. CstF binds to a GU-rich region further downstream of CPSF's site.[18] CFI recognises a third site on the RNA (a set of UGUAA sequences in mammals[19][20][21]) and can recruit CPSF even if the AAUAAA sequence is missing.[22][23] The polyadenylation signal -- the sequence motif recognised by the RNA cleavage complex -- varies between groups of eukaryotes. Most human polyadenylation sites contain the AAUAAA sequence,[18] but this sequence is less common in plants and fungi.[24] The RNA is typically cleaved before transcription termination, as CstF also binds to RNA polymerase II.[25] Through a poorly-understood mechanism (as of 2002), it signals for RNA polymerase II to slip off of the transcript.[26] Cleavage also involves the protein CFII, though it is unknown how.[27] The cleavage site associated with a polyadenylation signal can vary up to some 50 nucleotides.[28] When the RNA is cleaved, polyadenylation starts, catalysed by polyadenylate polymerase. Polyadenylate polymerase builds the poly(A) tail by adding adenosine monophosphate units from adenosine triphosphate to the RNA, cleaving off pyrophosphate.[29] Another protein, PAB2, binds to the new, short poly(A) tail and increases the affinity of polyadenylate polymerase for the RNA. When the poly(A) tail is approximately 250 nucleotides long the enzyme can no longer bind to CPSF and polyadenylation stops, thus determining the length of the poly(A) tail.[30][31] CPSF is in contact with RNA polymerase II, allowing it to signal the polymerase to terminate transcription.[32][33] When RNA polymerase II reaches a "termination sequence" (TTATT on the DNA template and AAUAAA on the primary transcript), the end of transcription is signaled.[34] The polyadenylation machinery is also physically linked to the spliceosome, a complex that removes introns from RNAs.[23] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 44756 Shomu's Biology
Medical vocabulary: What does RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals mean
 
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What does RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals mean in English?
Views: 15 botcaster inc. bot
Polyadenylation
 
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Views: 3332 Swift Chou
Roy Parker (U. Colorado Boulder/HHMI) Part 1: mRNA Localization, Translation and Degradation
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/eukaryotic-mrna/ Part 1 The control of mRNA production and function is a key aspect of the regulation of gene expression. In the first part of this lecture, I will discuss how in eukaryotic cells, the control of mRNA localization, translation and degradation in the cytoplasm allow for the proper regulation of the amount, duration, and location of protein production. The basic mechanisms of these processes are understood and reveal that the mechanisms of localization, translation, and degradation are interconnected. The unique properties of each mRNA are dictated by its intrinsic interactions with cellular machines, as well as its complement of mRNA specific RNA binding proteins and miRNAs. Strikingly, mRNPs are dynamic and can be modulated by protein modifications as well as by modification of the mRNA itself, thereby providing a diversity of targets for the regulation of mRNA function in response to extracellular signals. In 2012, Roy Parker joined the University of Colorado, Boulder after many years at the University of Arizona.
Views: 21481 iBiology
USER TALK: Mapping Nuclear Exosome Targeted RNAs with 3´-end  RNA Sequencing
 
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USER TALK: Mapping Nuclear Exosome Targeted RNAs with 3´-end RNA Sequencing ABSTRACT: A large fraction of the RNA transcribed in eukaryotic cells is rapidly degraded in the nucleus. A poly-adenylation complex distinct from the canonical poly(A) machinery is responsible for initiating 3´-5´ degradation of nuclear RNAs. This non-canonical poly(A) machinery, termed the Trf4/5-Air1/2-Mtr4 or TRAMP complex, catalyzes the addition of 3-4 adenosines on target RNA 3´-ends. This tags the transcript for 3´-5´ exonuclease digestion by the nuclear RNA exosome, which can either degrade or trim the RNA in a manner dependent on the presence of RNA structures or RNA-binding proteins. Inactivating the nuclear exosome stabilizes these otherwise short-lived RNAs, and subsequent cellular polyadenylation lengthens the oligo(A) tails to more than 30 adenosines.The majority of these poly(A)+ 3´-ends arise from non-coding and pervasive RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts undergoing transcription termination by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) complex. 3´-sequencing of RNAs from exosome-inactivated cells enabled mapping the precise 3´-ends of these unstable RNAs, providing a high-resolution view of NNS termination genome-wide.Surprisingly, different NNS-dependent terminators display substantial heterogeneity in the width of the termination window, with some genes terminating the majority of transcripts in a window of less than 10 bp while others exhibit termination sites over a broad region of more than 500 bp. Further analysis of NNS-terminators with a narrow termination window revealed that a particular set of DNA-binding proteins cooperate with NNS by roadblocking Pol II to promote efficient transcription termination genome-wide. Using the QuantSeq 3´ mRNA-Seq library prep kits, we were able to multiplex more than 40 samples per sequencing lane and obtain between 2 to 5 million reads per sample. This enabled us to analyze numerous different strains with various exosome and roadblocking factors inactivated, showing that inactivating roadblocks shifted the window of NNS termination downstream. Strikingly, disabling NNS enabled elongation of Pol II through the same roadblocks.These results explain how RNA processing signals control the outcome of collisions between Pol II and DNA binding proteins. Learning Objectives: • Learn practical considerations involved in preparing QuantSeq 3´-poly(A)+ libraries and in processing, mapping, and analyzing reads. • Learn how to cluster poly(A) tags and perform differential expression analysis on clusters, and perform different types of meta-site/pileup analyses. SPEAKER: Kevin Roy Postdoctoral Scholar, Department of Genetics, Stanford University FOR MORE INFORMATION: Learn more about QuantSeq 3‘ mRNA-Seq Library Prep Kit: https://www.lexogen.com/quantseq-3mrna-sequencing Learn more about Lexogen products: https://www.lexogen.com FOLLOW US: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/lexogen Twitter - https://twitter.com/lexogen LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/company/lexogen-gmbh Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/lexogen/
Views: 360 Lexogen Inc.
3'   Polyadenylation
 
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Views: 1852 steve10304235
Transcription termination in eukaryotes | Eukaryotic transcription part 2
 
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Eukaryotic transcription termination - This lecture explains about the transcription termination in eukaryotes. Eukaryotic transcription terminates when it reaches a specific poly A signal sequence in the growing RNA chain. That signal sequence helps in the termination of eukaryotic transcription after recruiting enzymes like CPSF and CSTF and other cleavage factors. The cleavage of RNA and attachment of many A residues in the growing chain terminates the eukaryotic transcription. Poly adenylation is catalyzed by Poly A polymerase and guided by poly A binding protein. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the lecture video on Transcription termination in eukaryotes.
Views: 37061 Shomu's Biology
Signal sequence
 
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Signal sequence can refer to: This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 131 Audiopedia
nuclear import
 
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Molecular biology of the Cell, Bruce alberts 2008
Views: 5822 EmanAmna
Sauterer - Developmental Biology - G-Protein-Linked Receptor Signaling Pathways
 
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Sauterer - Developmental biology - Cell signaling - G-protein-linked receptor pathways, growth factors and RAS-MAPK Pathway
Views: 290 Roger Sauterer
mRNA Splicing
 
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NDSU Virtual Cell Animations Project animation 'mRNA Splicing'. For more information please see http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations Before being used in translation, mRNA must be spliced. During splicing, introns are removed and the translatable exons that remain are spliced into a single strand of mRNA.
Views: 892156 ndsuvirtualcell
Kevin Roy - Mapping nuclear exosome targeted polyA tails with 3´ RNA seq
 
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Watch this webinar at Labroots at: http://www.labroots.com/webinar/mapping-nuclear-exosome-targeted-poly-a-tails-3-rna-seq A large fraction of the RNA transcribed in eukaryotic cells is rapidly degraded in the nucleus. A poly-adenylation complex distinct from the canonical poly A machinery is responsible for initiating 3´-5´ degradation of nuclear RNAs. This non-canonical poly A machinery, termed the Trf4 5-Air1 2-Mtr4 or TRAMP complex, catalyzes the addition of 3-4 adenosines on target RNA 3´-ends. This tags the transcript for 3´-5´ exonuclease digestion by the nuclear RNA exosome, which can either degrade or trim the RNA in a manner dependent on the presence of RNA structures or RNA-binding proteins. Inactivating the nuclear exosome stabilizes these otherwise short-lived RNAs, and subsequent cellular polyadenylation lengthens the oligo A tails to 30 adenosines.The majority of these poly A+ 3´-ends arise from non-coding and pervasive RNA polymerase II Pol II transcripts undergoing transcription termination by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 NNS complex. 3´-sequencing of RNAs from exosome-inactivated cells enabled mapping the precise 3´-ends of these unstable RNAs, providing a high-resolution view of NNS termination genome-wide.Surprisingly, different NNS-dependent terminators display substantial heterogeneity in the width of the termination window, with some genes terminating the majority of transcripts in a window of 10 bp while others exhibit termination sites over a broad region of 500 bp. Further analysis of NNS-terminators with a narrow termination window revealed that a particular set of DNA-binding proteins cooperate with NNS by roadblocking Pol II to promote efficient transcription termination genome-wide. Using the QuantSeq 3´ mRNA-Seq library prep kits, we were able to multiplex 40 samples per sequencing lane and obtain between 2 to 5 million reads per sample. This enabled us to analyze numerous different strains with various exosome and roadblocking factors inactivated, showing that inactivating roadblocks shifted the window of NNS termination downstream. Strikingly, disabling NNS enabled elongation of Pol II through the same roadblocks.These results explain how RNA processing signals control the outcome of collisions between Pol II and DNA binding proteins.
Views: 112 LabRoots
Polyadenylation
 
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Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a primary transcript RNA. The poly(A) tail consists of multiple adenosine monophosphates; in other words, it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases. In eukaryotes, polyadenylation is part of the process that produces mature messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation. It, therefore, forms part of the larger process of gene expression. The process of polyadenylation begins as the transcription of a gene finishes, or terminates. The 3'-most segment of the newly made pre-mRNA is first cleaved off by a set of proteins; these proteins then synthesize the poly(A) tail at the RNA's 3' end. In some genes, these proteins may add a poly(A) tail at any one of several possible sites. Therefore, polyadenylation can produce more than one transcript from a single gene (alternative polyadenylation), similar to alternative splicing. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1244 Audiopedia
Post Transcriptional Gene Control (Intro)
 
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Sqadia video is the demonstration of Post Transcriptional Gene Control. Control may be exerted as a primary transcript is processed in the nucleus, during export of an mRNA to the cytoplasm, or in the cytoplasm. Any one gene would likely be regulated by only one or a few of the possible control mechanisms. Shortly after RNA polymerase II initiates transcription at the first nucleotide of the first exon of a gene, the 5’ end of the nascent RNA is capped with 7-methylguanylate. For large genes with multiple introns, introns often are spliced out of the nascent RNA during its transcription. 5’ cap and sequence adjacent to the poly(A) tail are retained in mature mRNAs. Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) binds to the upstream AAUAAA poly(A) signal. CStF interacts with a downstream GU- or U-rich sequence and with bound CPSF, forming a loop in the RNA; binding of CFI and CFII help stabilize the complex. After 200–250 A residues have been added, PABPII signals PAP to stop polymerization. Two transesterification reactions result in splicing of exons in pre-mRNA, in the first reaction, the ester bond between the 5’ phosphorus of the intron and the 3’ oxygen of exon 1 is exchanged for an ester bond with the 2’ of the branch-site A residue. In the second reaction, the ester bond between the 5’ phosphorus of exon 2 and the 3’ oxygen of the intron is exchanged for an ester bond with the 3’ oxygen of exon 1, releasing the intron as a lariat structure and joining the two exons. Stream the COMPLETE lecture on sqadia.com https://www.sqadia.com/programs/post-transcriptional-gene-control
Views: 135 sqadia.com
How to Pronounce Polyadenylation
 
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This video shows you how to pronounce Polyadenylation
V. Narry Kim (IBS and SNU) 2: Tailing in the Regulation of microRNA and Beyond
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/regulation-of-microrna/#part-2 Part 1: microRNA Biogenesis and Regulation: Narry Kim takes us through the steps in microRNA biogenesis and explains the importance of microRNAs in regulating protein-coding mRNAs. Part 2: Tailing in the Regulation of microRNA and Beyond: Modifications, such as uridylation, of the 3’ tail of both microRNAs and mRNAs can regulate RNA function by targeting it for degradation. Talk Overview: Small RNAs (~20-30 nucleotides in length) are found in many eukaryotes and act to guard against unwanted RNA such as viruses, transposons and mRNAs. One family of small RNAs called microRNAs regulates protein-coding mRNAs by binding to the 3’UTR and repressing translation or inducing mRNA decay. microRNAs play a key role in animal development and diseases such as cancer.  In her first talk, Dr. Narry Kim gives a step-by-step description of the microRNA biogenesis pathway and the points at which the pathway can be regulated. In her second talk, Kim focuses on the regulation of microRNA function. A small percentage of microRNAs are modified with untemplated nucleotides, usually A or U, added to their 3’ end or “tail”. “Tailing” can modify the microRNA function and in some cases it can act as a molecular switch resulting in developmental and pathological transitions.  Kim’s lab was interested in knowing if tailing occurs on other RNAs such as mRNA. They developed a novel method to sequence the 3’ tail region of mRNA allowing them to measure polyA tail length and detect 3’ terminal modifications.  Interestingly, they found widespread uridylation of mRNAs and showed that 3’ polyU modification serves to mark mRNA for decay.   Speaker Biography: Narry Kim is Director of the Institute for Basic Science and a Professor at Seoul National University.  Her lab studies RNA-mediated gene regulation using stem cells, early embryos, and neuronal cells as model systems. Kim received her BA and MS degrees in microbiology from Seoul National University and her DPhil in biochemistry from Oxford University.  She was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania in Gideon Dreyfuss’ lab before returning to Seoul National University as a faculty member.   Kim is on the editorial board of a number of journals and has helped to organize many meetings on RNA biology.  Her research and contributions to the life sciences community have been recognized with numerous awards including the Women in Science Award from L’Oreal-UNESCO (2008) and the Ho-Am Prize in medicine (2009). In 2014, Kim was elected to the Korean Academy of Science and Technology and the National Academy of Sciences USA.   Learn more about Dr. Kim’s research here: http://www.narrykim.org/en/
Views: 2969 iBiology
Transcription
 
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NDSU Virtual Cell Animations Project animation 'Transcription'. For more information please see http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations Transcription is a vital process in biological lifeforms. It is through this process that the biological roadmap encoded in a strand of DNA is used to produce a complementary RNA copy. The RNA can then go on to help produce the proteins and enzymes that power living organisms.
Views: 2440643 ndsuvirtualcell
Mod-04 Lec-11 Co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications of pre messenger RNA-I
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 3888 nptelhrd
15. RNA structure and RNA synthesis
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a ubiquitous family of large biological molecules that perform multiple vital roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Together with DNA, RNA comprises the nucleic acids, which, along with proteins, constitute the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but is usually single-stranded. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (often notated using the letters G, A, U, and C for the nucleotides guanine, adenine, uracil and cytosine) that directs synthesis of specific proteins, while many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome. Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function whereby mRNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) links amino acids together to form proteins. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page PPT source: All the PowerPoint material is from Sciencegeek.net. Copyright by sciencegeek.net. Link- http://www.sciencegeek.net/Biology/Powerpoints.shtml
Views: 14092 Shomu's Biology
genome annotation
 
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Subscribe today and give the gift of knowledge to yourself or a friend genome annotation Genome Annotation. BBSI July 14, 2005 Rita Shiang. Genome Annotation. Identification of important components in genomic DNA. What is a Gene?. Fundamental unit of heredity Slideshow 2971822 by yosefu show1 : genome annotation show2 : genome annotation show3 : genome annotation1 show4 : genome annotation1 show5 : what is a gene show6 : what is a gene show7 : what components are important in protein coding genes show8 : what components are important in protein coding genes show9 : tata box show10 : tata box show11 : other promoters show12 : other promoters show13 : polyadenylation cleavage show14 : polyadenylation cleavage show15 : splicing show16 : splicing show17 : splice reaction show18 : splice reaction show19 : splice sites show20 : splice sites show21 : additional splice sites show22 : additional splice sites show23 : translation signals show24 : translation signals show25 : capping of 5 rna with 7 methylguanylate m 7 g show26 : capping of 5 rna with 7 methylguanylate m 7 g show27 : known gene components show28 : known gene components show29 : genome annotation2 show30 : genome annotation2 show31 : repetitive dna makes up at least 50 of the genome
Views: 13 Magalyn Melgarejo
Gene expression
 
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Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism. In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype. The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype. Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's shape, or that act as enzymes catalysing specific metabolic pathways characterising the organism. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1131 Audiopedia
MB_W16_Lecture16
 
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Table of Contents: 02:29 - Bi334 Molecular Biology Lecture 16: 15 Feb 2016 02:50 - Clicker Question 16-1 04:50 - Clicker Question 16-2 07:13 - Clicker Question 16-2 (answer) 09:27 - Eukaryotic Polysome 11:58 - Quality control 13:32 - Eukaryotic Polysome 13:46 - Quality control 14:14 - tmRNA 16:07 - Selenocysteine 21:19 - Programmed frameshifting 23:50 - Nonsense mediated decay 24:31 - Programmed frameshifting 25:06 - Nonsense mediated decay 28:32 - Non-stop mediated decay 30:38 - Antibiotics 32:33 - Protein folding 32:41 - Antibiotics 33:50 - Non-stop mediated decay 33:51 - Nonsense mediated decay 34:04 - Non-stop mediated decay 34:07 - Antibiotics 34:56 - Protein folding 36:30 - Molten globule 37:24 - Co-translational folding 38:03 - Folding pathways 41:19 - Chaperones 43:01 - Targeted proteolysis 43:59 - 26S proteasome 45:36 - Ubiquitin not just degradation 45:56 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:11 - Degradation signals 48:14 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:18 - Ubiquitin not just degradation 48:19 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:20 - Degradation signals 48:20 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:22 - Degradation signals 49:27 - DNA to protein 50:49 - RNA! 51:40 - ENCODE – Sept. 2012 52:25 - RNA world/Origin of Life? 54:10 - Self-replicating element 56:05 - Other nucleotides 57:31 - RNA structures 58:13 - Ribozyme 01:00:17 - In vitro selection 01:02:58 - Ribozymes 01:03:29 - An RNA world 01:04:28 - What about recombination? 01:05:22 - RNA world to present
Views: 348 Ken Stedman
Probable ribosome biogenesis protein RLP24 | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probable_ribosome_biogenesis_protein_RLP24 Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8597613937614546 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Probable ribosome biogenesis protein RLP24 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RSL24D1 gene.This gene encodes a protein sharing a low level of sequence similarity with human ribosomal protein L24. Although this gene has been referred to as RPL24, L30, and 60S ribosomal protein L30 isolog in the sequence databases, it is distinct from the human genes officially named RPL24 (which itself has been referred to as ribosomal protein L30) and RPL30. The function of this gene is currently unknown. This gene utilizes alternative polyadenylation signals.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
Rachel Green (Johns Hopkins U., HHMI) 2: Protein synthesis: mRNA surveillance by the ribosome
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/biochemistry/protein-synthesis/#part-2 Talk Overview: In her first talk, Green provides a detailed look at protein synthesis, or translation. Translation is the process by which nucleotides, the “language” of DNA and RNA, are translated into amino acids, the “language” of proteins. Green begins by describing the components needed for translation; mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, and the initiation, elongation, and termination factors. She then explains the roles of these players in ensuring accuracy during the initiation, elongation, termination and recycling steps of the translation process. By comparing translation in bacteria and eukaryotes, Green explains that it is possible to determine which components and steps are highly conserved and predate the divergence of different kingdoms on the tree of life, and which are more recent adaptations. Green’s second talk focuses on work from her lab investigating how ribosomes detect defective mRNAs and trigger events leading to the degradation of the bad RNA and the incompletely translated protein product and to the recycling of the ribosome components. Working in yeast and using a number of biochemical and genetic techniques, Green’s lab showed that the protein Dom34 is critical for facilitating ribosome release from the short mRNAs that result from mRNA cleavage. Experiments showed that Dom34-mediated rescue of ribosomes from short mRNAs is an essential process for cell survival in higher eukaryotes. Speaker Biography: Rachel Green received her BS in chemistry from the University of Michigan. She then moved to Harvard to pursue her PhD in the lab of Jack Szostak where she worked on designing catalytic RNA molecules and investigating their implications for the evolution of life. As a post-doctoral fellow at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Green began to study how the ribosome translates mRNA to protein with such accuracy. Currently, Green is a Professor of Molecular Biology and Genetics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Research in her lab continues to focus on the ribosome and factors involved in the fidelity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation. Green is the recipient of a Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Graduate Teaching Award as well as the recipient for numerous awards for her research. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2012.
Views: 7754 iBiology
Cell nucleus
 
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In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression — the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nucleoskeleton (which includes nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required that regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. The interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2646 Audiopedia
Medical vocabulary: What does Healthy People Programs mean
 
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What does Healthy People Programs mean in English?
Mod-07 Lec-24 Gene Regulation during Drosophila Development
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 13808 nptelhrd
Mod-01 Lec-03 Diversity in general transcription factors
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 3895 nptelhrd
14 6
 
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Views: 3 xinbo huang
IV CIIIEN 2016 - Poster Highlights
 
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En la sesión de presentación de Poster Highlights del IV Congreso Internacional sobre Investigación e Innovación en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIIIEN) se expusieron los siguientes: José Luis Muñoz Bravo: Molecular co-chaperone Cysteine String Protein-alpha (CSP-alpha) controls mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in adult mouse fibroblasts (Muñoz-Bravo, J.L., Martínez-López, J.A., Gómez-Sánchez, L., Mavillard-Saborido, F., Fernández-Chacón, R) Alberto Parras: Alteration of Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Proteins in Huntington’s Disease (A. Parras, H. Anta, M. Santos-Galindo, S. Pico, A. Elorza, I. Hernandez, N. Wang, X.W. Yang, P. Navarro, R. Mendez and J.J. Lucas) Lilian Enríquez Barreto: Role of CRTC1 in structural synaptic plasticity in the adult brain during neurodegeneration (Enríquez-Barreto L., Ussía O., Parra-Damas A., Acosta S., Rodríguez-Álvarez, J. and Saura C.A) Fabio Cavaliere: Astrocytes contribute to the spreading of pathogenic α-synuclein (Paula Ramos, Fabio Cavaliere, Benjamin Dehay, Erwan Bezard, Jose Obeso and Carlos Matute) Maria Llorens Martin: Acute stress sabotages the synaptic and morphological maturation of newborn granule neurons and triggers a unique pro-inflammatory environment in the hippocampus (Maria Llorens-Martin; Marta Bolos Noemi Pallas-Bazarra; Jeronimo Jurado-Arjona; Jesus Avila) Jose Antonio Del Rio Fernandez: Reelin expression in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and experimental models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Agata Mata, Laura Urrea, Silvia Vilches, Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Juan-Carlos Espinosa, Olivier Andréoletti, Alejandro M. Sevillano, Juan María Torres, Jesús Rodríguez Requena, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer, Rosalina Gavín and José Antonio del Río) Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez: β-amyloid compromises Reelin signaling in Alzheimer’s disease (Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez, Trinidad Mata-Balaguer, Valeria Balmaceda, Javier Sáez-Valero ) Assumpció Bosch Merino: Intrathecal AAVrh10 corrects biochemical and histological hallmarks of Mucopolysaccharidosis VII mice and improves bone pathology, behavior and survival (G Pagès, L Giménez-Llort, B García-Lareu, L Ariza, A Sanchez-Osuna, G García-Eguren, M Navarro, J Ruberte, C Casas, M Chillón, A Bosch) El congreso organizado por la Fundación Reina Sofía, la Fundación Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Neurológicas (Fundación CIEN) y el Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), celebró su cuarta edición y, como en años anteriores reunió a más de un centenar de expertos nacionales e internacionales que analizaron los principales avances en el conocimiento y tratamiento de las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, fundamentalmente alzhéimer, párkinson y huntington. El IV Congreso Internacional de Investigación e Innovación en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIIIEN) se desarrolló los días 21, 22 y 23 de septiembre en la Oficina de Propiedad Intelectual de la Unión Europea (EUIPO) de Alicante.
Views: 130 CIBERNED
RNA: Transcription & Processing Part 1
 
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Lecture presentation linked to a free Creative Commons (ccby) interactive electronic textbook (eText) at http://dc.uwm.edu/biosci_facbooks_bergtrom/
Views: 285 Gerry Bergtrom
Lec 21 | MIT 7.012 Introduction to Biology, Fall 2004
 
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Virology/Tumor Viruses (Prof. Robert A. Weinberg) View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/7-012F04 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 17062 MIT OpenCourseWare
Vector (molecular biology)
 
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In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed. A vector containing foreign DNA is termed recombinant DNA. The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly used vectors are plasmids. Common to all engineered vectors are an origin of replication, a multicloning site, and a selectable marker. The vector itself is generally a DNA sequence that consists of an insert and a larger sequence that serves as the "backbone" of the vector. The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the insert in the target cell. Vectors called expression vectors specifically are for the expression of the transgene in the target cell, and generally have a promoter sequence that drives expression of the transgene. Simpler vectors called transcription vectors are only capable of being transcribed but not translated: they can be replicated in a target cell but not expressed, unlike expression vectors. Transcription vectors are used to amplify their insert. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2966 Audiopedia
Mod-08 Lec-31 Eukaryotic protein expression systems - II
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 2244 nptelhrd
Cell nucleus | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_nucleus 00:02:51 1 History 00:06:54 2 Structures 00:08:15 2.1 Nuclear envelope and pores 00:12:19 2.2 Nuclear lamina 00:15:23 2.3 Chromosomes 00:18:01 2.4 Nucleolus 00:21:03 2.5 Other nuclear bodies 00:22:20 2.5.1 Cajal bodies and gems 00:24:37 2.5.2 PIKA and PTF domains 00:25:27 2.5.3 PML bodies 00:27:11 2.5.4 Splicing speckles 00:29:27 2.5.5 Paraspeckles 00:31:24 2.5.6 Perichromatin fibrils 00:31:50 2.5.7 Clastosomes 00:33:08 3 Function 00:34:07 3.1 Cell compartmentalization 00:37:22 3.2 Gene expression 00:38:47 3.3 Processing of pre-mRNA 00:41:04 4 Dynamics and regulation 00:41:15 4.1 Nuclear transport 00:44:18 4.2 Assembly and disassembly 00:49:55 4.3 Disease-related dynamics 00:50:26 5 Nuclei per cell 00:50:57 5.1 Anucleated cells 00:52:25 5.2 Multinucleated cells 00:54:11 6 Evolution 00:58:23 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7245398904537519 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others including osteoclasts have many. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genome, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. Because the nuclear envelope is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA.
Views: 17 wikipedia tts
Transcriptomes: General principles from comparison of worm, fly and human - Robert Waterston
 
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June 20-21, 2012 - Genomics of model organisms and human biology: Insights from the modENCODE Project More: http://www.genome.gov/27549319
Gene expression | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_expression 00:02:09 1 Mechanism 00:02:18 1.1 Transcription 00:05:45 1.2 RNA processing 00:08:57 1.3 Non-coding RNA maturation 00:11:48 1.4 RNA export 00:12:38 1.5 Translation 00:15:33 1.6 Folding 00:17:27 1.7 Translocation 00:18:04 1.8 Protein transport 00:19:10 2 Regulation of gene expression 00:22:08 2.1 Transcriptional regulation 00:25:24 2.2 Transcriptional regulation in cancer 00:26:50 2.3 Post-transcriptional regulation 00:28:32 2.4 Three prime untranslated regions and microRNAs 00:31:42 2.5 Translational regulation 00:32:20 2.6 Protein degradation 00:32:54 3 Measurement 00:34:21 3.1 mRNA quantification 00:38:25 3.2 RNA profiles in Wikipedia 00:39:20 3.3 Protein quantification 00:40:32 3.4 Localisation 00:42:33 4 Expression system 00:43:45 4.1 Inducible expression 00:44:10 4.2 In nature 00:45:03 5 Gene networks 00:46:37 6 Techniques and tools 00:47:34 7 Gene expression databases Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8235824589207714 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism. In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait. The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype. Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's shape, or that act as enzymes catalysing specific metabolic pathways characterising the organism. Regulation of gene expression is thus critical to an organism's development.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Nucleus (biology) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_nucleus 00:02:07 1 History 00:05:05 2 Structures 00:05:48 2.1 Nuclear envelope and pores 00:08:42 2.2 Nuclear lamina 00:10:57 2.3 Chromosomes 00:12:50 2.4 Nucleolus 00:15:01 2.5 Other nuclear bodies 00:15:58 2.5.1 Cajal bodies and gems 00:17:37 2.5.2 PIKA and PTF domains 00:18:16 2.5.3 PML bodies 00:19:31 2.5.4 Splicing speckles 00:21:11 2.5.5 Paraspeckles 00:22:36 2.5.6 Perichromatin fibrils 00:22:57 2.5.7 Clastosomes 00:23:55 3 Function 00:24:40 3.1 Cell compartmentalization 00:27:02 3.2 Gene expression 00:28:06 3.3 Processing of pre-mRNA 00:29:47 4 Dynamics and regulation 00:29:56 4.1 Nuclear transport 00:32:11 4.2 Assembly and disassembly 00:36:17 4.3 Disease-related dynamics 00:36:42 5 Nuclei per cell 00:37:06 5.1 Anucleated cells 00:38:12 5.2 Multinucleated cells 00:39:29 6 Evolution 00:42:31 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8510151823858038 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others including osteoclasts have many. The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. Because the nuclear envelope is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA.
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Vector (molecular biology) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_(molecular_biology) 00:02:22 1 Characteristics 00:02:32 1.1 Plasmids 00:04:27 1.2 Viral vectors 00:05:25 1.3 Artificial chromosomes 00:06:09 2 Transcription 00:07:50 3 Expression 00:08:27 3.1 Prokaryotes expression vector 00:09:11 3.2 Eukaryotes expression vector 00:10:03 4 Features 00:13:18 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9502393733380498 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages). A vector containing foreign DNA is termed recombinant DNA. The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly used vectors are plasmids. Common to all engineered vectors are an origin of replication, a multicloning site, and a selectable marker. The vector itself is generally a DNA sequence that consists of an insert (transgene) and a larger sequence that serves as the "backbone" of the vector. The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the insert in the target cell. All vectors may be used for cloning and are therefore cloning vectors, but there are also vectors designed specially for cloning, while others may be designed specifically for other purposes, such as transcription and protein expression. Vectors designed specifically for the expression of the transgene in the target cell are called expression vectors, and generally have a promoter sequence that drives expression of the transgene. Simpler vectors called transcription vectors are only capable of being transcribed but not translated: they can be replicated in a target cell but not expressed, unlike expression vectors. Transcription vectors are used to amplify their insert. The manipulation of DNA is normally conducted on E. coli vectors, which contain elements necessary for their maintenance in E. coli. However, vectors may also have elements that allow them to be maintained in another organism such as yeast, plant or mammalian cells, and these vectors are called shuttle vectors. Such vectors have bacterial or viral elements which may be transferred to the non-bacterial host organism, however other vectors termed intragenic vectors have also been developed to avoid the transfer of any genetic material from an alien species.Insertion of a vector into the target cell is usually called transformation for bacterial cells, transfection for eukaryotic cells, although insertion of a viral vector is often called transduction.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Glossary of genetics | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_genetics 00:00:20 0–9 00:02:17 A 00:05:54 B 00:06:42 C 00:13:25 D 00:16:48 E 00:19:18 F 00:20:29 G 00:29:57 H 00:33:47 I 00:35:48 J 00:35:59 K 00:36:49 L 00:38:12 M 00:42:19 N 00:46:49 O 00:48:16 P 00:53:31 Q 00:54:15 R 00:57:42 S 01:02:01 T 01:05:01 U 01:05:52 W 01:06:22 X 01:06:35 Y 01:06:48 Z 01:07:02 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9448468014665127 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This glossary of genetics is a list of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in the study of genetics and related disciplines in biology, including molecular biology and evolutionary biology. It is intended as introductory material for novices; for more specific and technical detail, see the article corresponding to each term.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts