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Videos uploaded by user “Joe Scott”
Parks and Recreation "Second Chunce" Kathryn Hahn scene
 
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I never upload stuff like this to YouTube, but I just loved this scene from the current season (2013-14) of Parks and Rec. Kathryn Hahn is amazing in it.
Views: 175504 Joe Scott
5 INSANE Stories Of Human Survival | Random Thursday
 
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The human body is capable of withstanding an incredible amount of damage and just keep going. Here are 5 mind-boggling cases of human survival. Get canker sores? Find out more about Cankerboy! http://www.cankerboy.com Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe
Views: 408143 Joe Scott
Down The Rabbit Hole of the Double Slit Experiment | Answers With Joe
 
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The Double Slit Experiment started as a way to determine if light is a wave or a particle - but it uncovered mysteries that have baffled science to this day. ------- This subject is really complicated, so I borrowed footage from these videos. Go check them out because they are fantastic and will help shed further light on the subject (pun intended). Veritasium Single Photon Interference https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GzbKb59my3U Veritasium original double slit experiment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iuv6hY6zsd0 TechLaboratories DIY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKdaRJ3vAmA Dr. Quantum (from the movie What The Bleep Do We Know?) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfPeprQ7oGc =============== Subscribe! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg Follow me! http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe http://www.twitter.com/joescottwriter http://www.everythingjoescott.tumblr.com Also, you can find me on Periscope and Blab at @joescottwriter =============== In the late 1600’s it was pretty much settled science that light traveled as a particle. There had been many experiments that seemed to back this up and it even had the support of Sir Isaac Newton. But then a physicist named Thomas Young created the double-slit experiment. The thinking was, if light were traveling as a particle, it would create 2 parallel lines on the background, because the particles that are passing through the two slits would hit the wall behind those two slits. Instead, he got an interference pattern. This can only happen if the light was traveling as a wave. But other experiments proved light was a particle. Somehow light functioned both as a particle and as a wave. This was known as the wave-particle duality. in the 1920's, physicists added another layer to the experiment when they fired photons through one at a time, amazingly still getting the interference pattern. This proved that the photons were going through both slits at the same time and interfering with themselves. This is because quantum particles travel in a wave function of potentials, only returning to the particle state when the wave function collapses. Adding to the weirdness was another extension of the Double Slit Experiment - the Which Way variation. In this experiment, they placed a tiny detector on one of the slits. Surprisingly, the pattern on the back wall of the experiment was a particle pattern. This means the wave function collapsed before it went through the slits. Why? Because it was being observed. It was the act of observing the particle that caused its wave form to collapse. This cannot be explained to this day. Yet another layer of weirdness is the Delayed Choice experiment conducted by John Archibald Wheeler. In this, he added a second double slit that changes while the photon is in mid-flight. The results showed that by changing the nature of the second slit, it altered the behavior of the particle at the first slit. In other words, this particle was being altered by things that hadn’t happened yet. Future events can change the present. When Thomas Young created the double slit experiment, he had no idea the endless stream of mysteries this would create. Who knows what mysteries still await us...
Views: 190628 Joe Scott
Have We Found Planet X? | Answers With Joe
 
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There's been a lot of noise, especially on social media, about a possible 9th planet being found in the solar system. Is it real? What's the evidence? And is this a new thing? Subscribe! http://www.answerswithjoe.com Follow me! Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter, Periscope, and Blab: @joescottwriter Instagram: @joescottcreative ================= The ancient Greeks only knew about 5 planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Then in the late 1700s, William Herschel used a new telescope technology to find Uranus. But a wobble in its orbit suggested the presence of another planet... Using this wobble, mathematicians calculated the position of this 8th planet in 1847, and Neptune was discovered. It was the only planet discovered by math. Today, astronomers have discovered several asteroids from the Kuiper Belt that have very similar elliptical orbits through the solar system that are so close that it is only a 1 in 15,000 chance of happening at random. And they are using similar math to map the location of a 9th planet, but one that is very different from the ones we know. This planet would orbit far outside our current solar system and would take 15,000 years to orbit. Time will tell whether this proposed planet will be found, but scientists studying the phenomenon at the Subaru Observatory in Hawaii believe they'll have an answer in 5 years. Sciencemag article on Planet X http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/01/feature-astronomers-say-neptune-sized-planet-lurks-unseen-solar-system Uranus Perturbations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBiDrDkno7Y An article on perturbations http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/perturbations.html The History of the word “planet" http://www.space.com/5743-storied-history-word-planet.html Retrograde motion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lltkAduGVSg
Views: 91984 Joe Scott
The Fermi Paradox - 10 Mind-Blowing Explanations
 
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A lot of this came from - where else - an awesome article on Wait But Why. http://waitbutwhy.com/2014/05/fermi-paradox.html Here I take a question by Mark Lott, asking why, with all the billions of stars out there, we haven't been able to detect a single intelligent civilization out there. This is the Fermi Paradox. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermi_paradox The universe is impossibly big. Even our own galactic backyard has 10,000 stars for every grain of sand on Earth. Shouldn't it be teeming with intelligent life? If this sounds bizarre, the reasons science has come up with to explain this are freaking bananas. Pass this around! Blow some minds! Follow me! Follow me! http://www.twitter.com/joescottwriter http://www.facebook.com/scottcreative http://everythingjoescott.tumblr.com/
Views: 438787 Joe Scott
Why Is The Speed Of Light The Speed Of Light? | Answers With Joe
 
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You may be familiar with the speed of light, but the reason it exists and how we discovered it is pretty fascinating. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe ============= LINKS LINKS LINKS: PBS Space Time videos: The Speed of Light is NOT About Light https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msVuCEs8Ydo The Geometry of Causality https://youtu.be/1YFrISfN7jo http://www.iflscience.com/space/solar-system-speed-light/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lene_Hau https://aeon.co/essays/why-is-the-speed-of-light-the-speed-of-light https://www.sciencenews.org/article/speed-light-not-so-constant-after-all ============ Transcript: So when we talk about the speed of light, the first thing to remember is that light is just a sliver of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from gamma rays to radio waves. So we’re really talking about the speed of electromagnetism. James Clerk Maxwell was the genius who first described the properties of electromagnetism into physics equations. From these equations, we can calculate the speed of light. 299,792 kilometers per second. Einstein was able to prove through his theory of special relativity that the closer you get to the speed of light, the more time slows down for a person in that relative frame. And if you were to go the speed of light, time would stop altogether. So if you were able to travel faster than light through spacetime, time itself would actually flip. Time would go backwards. And that would break causality. Effect would precede cause, which is impossible. The speed of light is the speed of causality. The other prediction that supports a speed limit is the idea that inertia increases as velocity approaches the speed of light. That means mass increases. So mass is a speed impediment. Nothing that has mass can go the speed of light. But if you are massless, you can only go the speed of light, because you have no speed impediments. And photons are massless particles. Particles that must travel at the speed of light and because they are traveling at the speed of light, time stands still from its point of view. So really, that video I talked about earlier is all wrong, from the perspective of the photon, that journey would have occurred instantly. So when you look at a star at night, that massless photon might have traveled a million light-years to reach you, but its experience was instantaneous. Now there is another theory that’s a little controversial but starting to gain some ground. It says that the speed of light is actually caused by quantum vacuum fluctuations. See, quantum field theory claims that empty space is actually not empty at all but filled with quantum fluctuations and virtual particles popping in and out of existence. And two different teams of researchers have calculated c using electromagnetic properties of the quantum vacuum, so it could be that the quantum foam of virtual particles and fluctuations may be slowing the speed of light. But what if the speed of light wasn’t the speed of light? What if Galileo was right and the speed is infinite? Then nothing would exist. Because matter is made of energy, it would take infinite energy to create any mass. Time and space wouldn’t exist because all things communicate with each other instantaneously. Cause and effect wouldn’t exist. But if the speed of light were slower, that might be even cooler. Because then we could see all the way back to the big bang. The speed of light, of course, is just one of many constants in the universe, like gravity, the specific charges and masses of the fundamental particles, quantum effects, and the list goes on. A whole handful of very specific constants that if they were just a little bit different, we would never exist.
Views: 341810 Joe Scott
Did Humans Almost Go Extinct? | Random Thursday
 
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70,000 years ago, the human population hit a major bottleneck, and scientists aren't exactly sure why. One of the more popular explanations has been the Toba explosion, the massive explosion of the Toba supervolcano that occurred at roughly that same time, but has been mostly disproven. DNA evidence shows that African populations, especially the ancient Khoi and San people of Africa, show far more genetic diversity than those who came out of Africa according to the "out of Africa" theory. The study showed that those that came out of Africa descended from between 1000 and 10,000 breeding pairs. The reason for this remains a mystery. T-shirt? T-shirt. http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe
Views: 164184 Joe Scott
Quantum Entanglement - One SPOOKY Mystery | Answers With Joe
 
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Just in time for Halloween, here's a spooky science mystery. Follow me! http://www.twitter.com/joescottwriter http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Also find me on Periscope and Blab: @joescottwriter Links to more on this subject: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_(physics) http://www.livescience.com/28550-how-quantum-entanglement-works-infographic.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-electron_universe http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/22/science/quantum-theory-experiment-said-to-prove-spooky-interactions.html?_r=0 Just last week, a group of researchers at the Kalvi Institute of Nanoscience in the Netherlands were able to manipulate entangled electrons at a distance of 1.3 kilometers, the longest distance obtained so far in a lab. Future experiments plan to expand this distance, there’s even one planned to put an entangled particle on the international space station. As for what applications this may have, scientists imagine the possibility of using quantum entanglements to power a worldwide computer network, completely interconnected and communicating instantaneously all around the world. There would be no such thing as internet speed, everything would happen all at once at all times. Now imagine that one of those photons were split into two while in superposition, which it turns out is fairly easy to do by shining light through the right type of crystal lattice. Now you have two separate particles in superposition. What would happen if you measured one of them? Would both of their waveforms collapse? Or just the one you measured? It turns out they both collapse. The change you make in one particle automatically changes the other. You observe this one, this one collapses, you change the spin of that one, the other one changes. And it happens instantaneously, no matter how far apart the particles are. Even if the particles are in two galaxies millions of light years away, they change direction simultaneously. This is quantum entanglement. But of course, this breaks all kinds of physical laws. How does this information travel faster than light if light is the fastest thing in the universe? The answer to that question can be expressed in one mathematical equation: ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Yeah. It’s far more than just a strange quirk of the quantum world, though. Because the big bang theory states that the entire universe was created from a single point, so there could be entangled particles all over the universe. In fact, every particle may be entangled with another particle, or groups of particles, billions of particles scattered all throughout the universe. And every time we observe a particle or change its spin, it’s altering particles all over the known universe. There’s even a theory by our old friend John Archibald Wheeler called One Electron Universe theory, which theorizes that every electron in the universe is the same electron moving backwards and forwards through time along a single world line that is folded back in on itself like a giant knot. Good luck with that one.
Views: 80566 Joe Scott
Space Stations: Past, Present, And Future | Answers With Joe
 
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Get a free month of CuriosityStream if you go to http://www.curiositystream.com/joescott If we're going to become a space-faring civilization and travel to Mars and beyond, we need to know how to live and work in space. So while space stations aren't the most headline-grabbing aspect of the space race, they are vitally important. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get cool nerdy t-shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Interested in getting a Tesla? Use my referral link and get discounts and perks: https://ts.la/joe74700 Become a channel member and get access to exclusive livestreams and content here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg/join Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_stations https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Orbital_Station https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_Piloted_Assembly_and_Experiment_Complex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Orbital_Platform-Gateway https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_large_modular_space_station https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Space_Station#End_of_mission https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_1 http://bigelowaerospace.com/ https://www.orionspan.com/ https://axiomspace.com/ https://gatewayspaceport.com/
Views: 141750 Joe Scott
An "Insect Apocalypse" Is Happening. Here's Why That's A Problem.   | Random Thursday
 
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All around the world, insect species are dying at alarming rates. It's being called the Insect Apocalypse, and a new study looks at why this is happening, what can be done about it, and what would happen if the trend continues. Check out the Xerces citizen science initiatives: https://xerces.org/citizen-science/ Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get cool nerdy t-shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Become a channel member and get access to exclusive livestreams and content here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg/join Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: Study link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320718313636 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/as-insect-populations-decline-scientists-are-trying-to-understand-why/ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/02/why-insect-populations-are-plummeting-and-why-it-matters/ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/study-shows-global-insect-populations-have-crashed-last-decade-180971474/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_fly
Views: 112424 Joe Scott
The James Webb Space Telescope: Hubble's Mind-Blowing Successor | Answers With Joe
 
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The Hubble Telescope opened our perspective of the cosmos and our place in it. But the James Webb Space Telescope may show us the very origins of our universe. Answers With Joe T-Shirts available at: http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: Animation of the JWST launch and deployment: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6ihVeEoUdo JWST focusing procedure: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2zQiWeXTg4 JWST Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnpZzPAsz1U TRANSCRIPT: So let’s talk about what we’re getting for our $8 billion dollars shall we? The first thing everybody talks about with the JWST is the mirror. Or I should say mirrors. The collecting surface is a massive 6.5 meters, or 21.3 feet, as tall as a two story building. The only way to get a mirror that size into space is to fold it up, so the mirror is made out of 18 hexagonal gold-coated beryllium units that fold together to make one surface. By the way, the mirror on the Hubble - the mirror that gave us an entirely new perspective on our universe by showing us things we didn’t know were there - is 2.4 meters. This DWARFS Hubble. And unlike Hubble, which could see in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet wavelengths, JWST’s will focus on the infrared spectrum The reason is because JWST’s primary mission is to find the furthest and earliest stars and galaxies in the universe. Think of the Hubble deep field on steroids and meth. And because of the expansion of the universe, the further a star or galaxy is from us, the more redshifted their light will be. So the furthest galaxies will be redshifted way down into the deep infrared. The trick with infrared telescopes is in order to see the smallest frequencies, you have to be really cold. Most Infrared telescopes have very short life spans for this reason because they’re cooled with liquid nitrogen or helium. These things are so sensitive that even the heat from the computer on the telescope can mess with the results. But James Webb cools passively as much as possible through the solar shields. These shields are the size of a tennis court but are thinner than a human hair. They have to be insanely thin to keep from weighing too much. One specific star JWST plans to check out is KIC 8462852 - Tabby’s Star, which I just covered about a month ago in a video that will likely be obsolete once JWST takes a look at it. LUVOIR is a 12-meter telescope that can see in multiple wavelengths, including the visible spectrum, which James Webb can’t do. It would be used to study galaxy formation and examine the early universe even further than James Webb, but maybe the coolest part is it will have an onboard chronograph that blocks starlight, meaning it’ll be able to find exoplanets visibly without the planet’s star getting in the way. Perched atop Mauna Kea, the Thirty Meter Telescope’s mirror has a diameter of - you guessed it - 30 meters, with a collection area of 655 square meters, made up of 492 individual segments. This will have capabilities from ultraviolet, through the visible spectrum and into the mid-infrared field, giving it a wide range of wavelengths to cover. There are a couple more extremely large telescopes in the works worth mentioning, including the European Extremely Large Telescope with a diameter of nearly 40 meters and the Magellan Telescope, both of which are set to be built in Chile. But all of this is dwarfed by the Chinese five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope - or FAST. This is a radio telescope that is twice as large as the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico. It got its first light in 2016 and has already discovered a pair of pulsars, though it’s still a ways away from being fully operational.
Views: 307262 Joe Scott
Time Crystals Explained | Answers With Joe
 
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I recently did a live stream about the subject of time crystals, but there was much more to talk about. So here you go. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe =============== LINKS LINKS LINKS: =============== When you hear the term Time Crystals, you immediately think of something cool and sci-fi like something from Doctor Who, but spoilers… Not so much. That doesn’t mean they’re not interesting, they’re super-interesting, just… Not what powers a Tardis. The explanation that we keep hearing is that time crystals are crystals whose atomic structures repeat in space and in time. Like the reason crystals become crystals is the way the atoms of particular elements bond with each other in certain patterns that repeat over and over again. That’s repeating in three dimensions. But time crystals repeat in four dimensions. They also repeat in time. Time as a construct relies on cause and effect, one thing preceding the other, always working toward equilibrium, or a zero energy state. If you have a row of atoms repeating in a crystal, and you send energy along that line, it will pass through one atom, then another, all the way down until the system returns to equilibrium, or zero point energy. But with time crystals, atoms are connected through quantum entanglement in repeating patterns so that atoms down the chain would feel the effect before the cause, so energy sent down the line would repeat over and over again, making it impossible to return to equilibrium. That’s why they’re also called non-equilibrium matter. And that’s also why you hear so many people describe it as jello that never stops jiggling. Because even in its lowest energy state, the atoms never stop moving. Now, one question I got asked a lot in the livestream was if this breaks the law of conservation of momentum. And the answer is… Yes. It very does. Which is why this was such a big deal. And it’s something I don’t think I fully grasped in the livestream. There’s an even more fundamental law of the universe known as time translation symmetry which states that the laws of physics must work the same way everywhere at all times. And if you have matter that moves without using any energy, that sounds a lot like the laws of physics working differently. But when Nobel-prize winning physicist Frank Wilczek introduced the idea in 2012, he proposed a loophole. He stated that if symmetry is broken explicitly, then the laws of nature do not have symmetry anymore. But he argued that there’s such a thing as spontaneously broken symmetry, which means that the laws of nature still has symmetry, but nature chooses a system that does not. In other words, if the laws of nature allow these atoms to arrange in this way, then they’re still being loyal to the laws of nature. Regardless, the idea is tantalizing enough that teams of researchers have been working on it since then, and just this year, two different teams announced that they’d pulled it off. The first team from the University of Maryland, lead by Chris Monroe, took 10 ytterbium atoms and used one laser to create an electromagnetic field around the atoms, which entangled the various atoms, before blasting it with a second laser that jostled the atoms. And as predicted, once the energy was introduced, it never stopped. In fact, it started jiggling at a different rate than the laser introduced into it. This was a non-equilibrium state. But the team at Harvard did it a totally different way, by using molecules from nitrogen vacancy centers, which are tiny flaws in diamonds. But the fact that they used such different methods is encouraging, it may be that these aren’t that hard to produce and there may be hundreds of ways to do it. Which is great because there really are some cool applications for this. First of all, it makes the perfect timepiece. If you have a type of matter that oscillates at a specific frequency naturally, that’s about as accurate as you can get. But the most exciting application is for quantum computing because the entangled atoms in the atomic structure could allow stable qubits of information to be stored. Now, as always, we have to take these kinds of announcements with grains of salt. These kinds of major discoveries often have ways of falling apart under scrutiny, so we’ll have to wait and see how this holds up to peer review and future experimentation, but still… pretty exciting stuff.
Views: 213718 Joe Scott
Zeno's Paradox and the Planck Length | Answers With Joe
 
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Today I discuss how some infinities are bigger than other infinities with Zeno's Paradox. Watch my vlog on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe ==================== LINKS LINKS LINKS: VSauce's video on Supertasks: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ffUnNaQTfZE https://www.learner.org/courses/mathilluminated/units/3/textbook/04.php https://www.quora.com/Does-the-planck-length-explain-resolve-Zenos-Paradox https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_length https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reductio_ad_absurdum ==================== TRANSCRIPT: Zeno was in a cult. Back in ancient Greece, hero cults were a thing, and kind-of a big thing. A Hero in Greek culture was a man who had died and was now revered as not quite godlike, but close. They were somewhere between man and God. And followers would build temples in their names and establish churches around them, and devout followers would pledge their lives to their ideals. But Zeno was a part of the first known hero cult based around a philosopher. A philosopher named Ameinias of Elea, who created the Eleatic School of Philosophy. The Eleatics, led by the Philosopher Parmenides, believed that the senses cannot be trusted to reach truth, that only by thinking and logic can you arrive at truth. They also believed that change and even motion was nothing but an illusion brought about by our senses. To prove this idea, Zeno posited a series of paradoxes, the most famous being the Arrow paradox and the Achilles and the Tortoise Paradox. Much like my spinning example earlier, the arrow paradox says that for an arrow to get from the bow to a target, it must pass through an infinite number of halfway points to get there, and the Achilles and the Tortoise paradox takes the use of movement a bit further by saying that if Achilles were racing a tortoise and gave the tortoise a head start that every time he got halfway to the tortoise, the tortoise would have moved forward a small amount, therefore even though he’s going much faster, could he ever actually catch the tortoise? Now logic says that of course the arrow reaches the target, there’s not some invisible field keeping it from touching, and of course Achilles beats the tortoise. These are some of the first examples of a rhetorical device called reductio ad absurdum, where you disprove a statement by showing that it inevitably ends with an absurd result. Other versions of this that came later include Gabriel’s cake, which says if you slice a piece of cake in half, then slice one of those halves in half, and again and so on into infinity, and then stack each of those layers on top of each other, the cake would stretch to infinity. Now these are all space paradoxes, but there’s also one that divides time called Thompson’s Lamp. It says you take one minute and turn a lamp on and off at every halfway division, so turn it on at 30 seconds, turn it off at 15 seconds, turn it back on at 7.5 seconds, on at 3.75, and on and on until it’s blinking so fast we wouldn’t be able to see the difference. When the minute passes, is the lamp on or off? Now, there have been countless resolutions of Zeno’s paradox through the years, some philosophers going so far as to reasoning that space and time don’t exist… which is kind-of what Zeno was going for… But mathematical constructs worked to prove that the sum of infinitely decreasing quantities could result in a finite number. And the idea for a limiting value to an infinite process is central to calculus, which relies on infinitesimals in order to ascribe a finite number to an infinite number of pieces. Thanks, Sir Isaac Newton! But maybe the easiest answer is simply that you can’t divide time and space forever. There might be a real, physical limit to smallness. Enter Max Planck. Max Planck was one of the most substantial physicists of the early 20th century who proposed an elemental size to the fabric of spacetime, which he called a Planck Length. The Planck Length is insanely small. It’s 1.6x10-35 meters. To give you an idea of how small that is, This (graphic - 15 zeroes) is the length of a proton. To get to Planck’s length, you have to add not 5 (graphics change for each), not 10, not 15, but 20 zeroes. It’s one hundred quintillionth the length of a proton. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Y8HgmOoLCM He came to this by combining three fundamental constants, Gravity, the speed of light, and his own Planck’s constant. And from there, he created Planck Time, the time it takes for light to travel one planck length. So if there truly is a smallest indivisible length of time and space, Zeno’s paradox is solved. But many still aren’t so sure.
Views: 114484 Joe Scott
Quantum Field Theory: Reality is Not What You Think It Is | Answers With Joe
 
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Set up a free Brilliant account at http://www.brilliant.org/answerswithjoe/ And the first 200 to sign up for a premium account get 20% off every month! Quantum Field Theory is the current best understanding of the nature of reality that we have. It's also the strangest. Join me as we break down how we got there and what it all means. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get some cool t-shirts yo! Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: From The Royal Institution - David Tong on Quantum Field Theory https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNVQfWC_evg Part one on Quantum Electrodynamics and Paul Dirac at PBS Digital Studios https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYkaahzFWfo Fermilab on Quantum Field Theory https://youtu.be/FBeALt3rxEA
Views: 201314 Joe Scott
Could We Build A Space Elevator? | Answers With Joe
 
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The cost of launching crew and cargo into space is way too expensive. A space elevator could change that - but the challenges are incredible. Want to know more about the space elevator? Check out The Space Elevator: A Revolutionary Earth-to-Space Transportation System on Amazon: http://amzn.to/1NhFSFm Follow me! Subscribe to this channel here: www.answerswithjoe.com I'm @answerswithjoe on: Facebook Twitter Instagram Snapchat ================ Links to more info: http://www.space.com/30272-space-elevator-inflatable-concept-patent.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SEA-ME-WE_3 http://io9.gizmodo.com/5984371/why-well-probably-never-build-a-space-elevator http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/07/21/138166072/spaceflight-is-getting-cheaper-but-its-still-not-cheap-enough http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/176625-60000-miles-up-geostationary-space-elevator-could-be-built-by-2035-says-new-study
Views: 68027 Joe Scott
Ray Kurzweil's Craziest Predictions About The Future | Answers With Joe
 
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Ray Kurzweil's predictions have an 86% success rate. But what he sees in the next 50 years are mind-blowing. Support the channel on Patreon! www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Check out Ray's books for more about his predictions for the future: The Age of Intelligent Machines http://amzn.to/1UMU4YM The Singularity is Near http://amzn.to/1UMUfn1 ============= Subscribe! www.answerswithjoe.com Follow me at answerswithjoe on: Facebook Twitter Instagram Snapchat ============= Ray Kurzweil is an inventor and futurist who has championed the Law of Accelerating Returns, claiming that computer technology is following an exponential path that will lead to the Singularity - a point in time when computer power reaches super intelligence and all things are possible. He predicts the Singularity by the year 2045. But that's just one of his predictions for the future which also involve: Autonomous cars Nanotechnology Simulated worlds Uploading consciousness Immortality =============== Links: Jean-Marc Cote 1900 French World Exposition http://www.businessinsider.com/french-predictions-for-the-year-2000-2012-7#a-whale-powered-bus-1 Kurzweil's track record http://bigthink.com/endless-innovation/why-ray-kurzweils-predictions-are-right-86-of-the-time Kurzweil's predictions https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predictions_made_by_Ray_Kurzweil Kurzweil's prediction timeline http://imgur.com/gallery/quKXllo (timeline) George Hotz's self-driving car hack http://www.bloomberg.com/features/2015-george-hotz-self-driving-car/ ColdFusionTV video on AlphaGo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TnUYcTuZJpM
Views: 370571 Joe Scott
Why You Might Just Be A Hologram | Answers With Joe
 
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As crazy as it sounds, the entire universe - including you - could just be a hologram. And here's the science to back it up. ============== Subscribe! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg Follow me! http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe http://www.twitter.com/joescottwriter http://www.everythingjoescott.tumblr.com Also, you can find me on Periscope and Blab at @joescottwriter ============== Information is basically the mathematical term for matter, basically the arrangement of the atoms and subatomic particles and their position in spacetime. So we know that information including light is sucked into a black hole at such a rate that nothing can escape it. But where does it go from there? According to our favorite half/man, half/robot, it basically ceases to exist. Which violates some pretty serious laws of physics, especially some quantum physics. Because a fundamental law of quantum mechanics says that information is encoded into the wave function of subatomic particles, which according to the rule of unitarity, means that information is conserved in the quantum sense. In other words, information has a mathematical copy in the quantum world, so no information can ever really be lost. But general relativity, which Hawking specializes in, says that the information is lost. And that became known as the Hawking Paradox. Because when you’re really smart, you get to have things named after you. So along came Leonard Suskind, a quantum physicist who had his own idea about black holes. Coming from the quantum side, he postulated that all the information doesn’t fall into the black hole at all, but instead gets encoded into the event horizon and what falls into the black hole is a projection of that information. Kind of like the surface of the black hole is a film strip, and it’s being projected into the inside. Now, I need to say, this involves math far beyond my pay grade… and abilities. But suffice it to say, Suskind was able to back this up with math that showed this could be possible, effectively tying together Relativity and Quantum mechanics. This means that inside a black hole is a perfect projection of what’s on the outside. So there’s 2 of everything. If you were living inside a black hole, you would never know that you were just the projection and the real you was up there somewhere. Which leads to the next obvious question… Are WE just a projection? How do we know whether we are real or the copy? There’s absolutely no way we could possibly know. So the idea was met with a healthy amount of skepticism. Still, it was solid enough that mathematicians got to work to perfect the theory. And someone cracked it. Juan Maldecena mathematically proved the holographic principle in what he called the AdS/CFT correspondence, the conjecture about the equivalence of string theory on anti-de Siter Space, and a conformal field theory defined on the boundary of the AdS Space. So with the math in place, the holographic principle won out, leading even Stephen Hawking to concede, saying that going against it was one of the biggest blunders of his career.
Views: 48614 Joe Scott
5 Reasons You May Be Living In A Simulation | Answers With Joe
 
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Are you living in The Matrix? New scientific theories are suggesting that you may be. Subscribe! http://www.answerswithjoe.com Follow me @answerswithjoe Snapchat Facebook Instagram Twitter ================= The Simulation Hypothesis, first published by Oxford philosopher/physicist Nick Bostrom, speculates that in the future, our descendants could create computer simulations that would be indistinguishable from reality, and that we may be living in that simulation. This video is a very high-level overview of the Simulation Hypothesis, here are some links that go much deeper: Listverse article on Simulation Theory: http://listverse.com/2013/12/02/10-reasons-life-may-be-a-computer-simulation/ Glitch In the Matrix Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/Glitch_in_the_Matrix/ Samsung’s new groundbreaking SSD hard drive: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mx4Z8hnBowM Nobel Prize Winner George Smoot’s TED Talk on Simulation Theory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Chfoo9NBEow Computer code in string theory - James Gates: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvMlUepVgbA Interesting discussion on simulation theory: http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/83117/is-this-pseudo-science-or-real-code-found-in-superstring Nick Bostrom’s full paper on the Simulation Argument: http://www.simulation-argument.com
Views: 318540 Joe Scott
Mind Blow - The Multiverse | Answers With Joe
 
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Is the universe all there is? Or are there multiple, even infinite universes in a vast multiverse? Today I tackle multiverse theories. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe ========= Transcript: The basic idea of the multiverse is pretty self-explanatory, it’s the idea that our universe is one of many, perhaps infinite universes. But what does that mean, multiple universes? And how do we explain it? There’s a lot of theories out there but I’m going to break this down to three general categories, Relativistic, quantum, and simulation theories. First, the Relativistic angle. When I use the term relativistic, what I mean is theories that are rooted in our current understanding of the universe as guided by general relativity. which tie up some loose ends to mysteries that we don’t currently have answers to. An obvious place to start here is the big bang theory. Terence McKenna once said that modern science is predicated on the idea of “Give us one free miracle and we’ll explain the rest." As I talked about in my previous big bang video, the biggest mystery surrounding the big bang theory is how all the matter and energy in the universe could have been created out of nothing. But that’s only a mystery if the universe is all there is. If we live in a multiverse, then it wouldn’t have popped out of nothing. In fact, there’s a whole bunch of crap out there it could have sprung out of. It could have been created by two different universes colliding with each other, much like the ekpyrotic theory of branes smashing together. It could have been spun off from other universes in an explosion or a collapse. Or there’s some deeper structure or source that materializes these universes through a release of energy like bubbles in carbonated soda. Physicist Andrei Linde proposed that this could be the caused by a cosmic vacuum decaying into its ground state. The quantum multiverse theory, or probabilistic theory is based on the idea that fundamental particles exist in probability states. And as I covered in my double slit experiment video, these particles only become associated with a certain position and velocity when their probability waveform collapses. But until that waveform collapses, it is in multiple states at the same time. Do those states disappear when the waveform collapses? Or does it create a slightly different, parallel universe? There are two competing theories of reality, determinism and probablism. A deterministic universe takes place on a massive timeline, where everything that has ever happened, everything happening now, and everything that will happen is pre-determined. Taken to an extreme, it means we have no free will. But a probabilistic universe has multiple, maybe even infinite timelines, with every action and decision spawning a new one. Think Back to the Future here. And last but certainly not least, the simulation theory. Oh, our old friend the Simulation Theory. Huzzah, happy day. If we are living in a computer simulation, then it’s not a big stretch to imagine that other computer simulations are being run as well. Now, Nick Bostrom’s argument was that future generations may run ancestor simulations in order to figure out where things went right and wrong in society. You could imagine with powerful enough computing - probably technologies we couldn’t even conceive of today - them being able to construct that type of probabilistic universe where every action and decision spawns off another universe. But this could be taken even bigger. Imagine a universe simulation where you can manipulate the masses and energies of particles in different configurations and see what happens. Because one of the mysteries of our universe is the fact that if the properties of the particles had been even just a little bit different, matter as we know it wouldn’t exist today. Imagine a program where the fundamental forces and the fundamental particles are on sliders and you can adjust the properties and then set off a big bang to see what happens. There could be countless universes out there with just slightly tweaked properties, creating realities that we couldn’t conceive of, universes entirely of anti-matter, where time runs backwards, across multiple dimensions. One of the problems with multiverse theory is that it does serve as a bit of a catch-all for all the things we don’t understand about our universe. So you have to be careful not to just apply it because it’s convenient. But, theories that solve multiple problems are often proved true. So who knows…
Views: 83135 Joe Scott
Did The US Accidentally Blast A Manhole Cover Into Space? | Random Thursday
 
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In 1957, the United States began testing nuclear weapons underground in the desert outside of Las Vegas, Nevada as part of Operation Plumbbob. One underground test, Pascal B, may have put the first manmade object into space. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get cool nerdy t-shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Become a channel member and get access to exclusive livestreams and content here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg/join Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe =================== Robert R. Brownlee engineered the Pascal A underground test to measure the amount of fallout that would occur from underground nuclear explosions. It involved digging a 485 foot shaft into the ground and capping it with a heavy steel plate. The explosion blew the steel plate off the ground and caused Brownlee to wonder how fast it propelled the object, so he set up a second nuclear test, Pascal B, to measure the speed of the steel cap. The high-speed camera only recorded the plate in one frame, which led Brownlee to conclude that it must have been traveling at more than 125,000 miles per hour, or 5 times the escape velocity of Earth. The plate was never found, and this has led many to believe it was jettisoned out into space. If this is true, the steel plate from Pascal B beat Sputnik to space by 2 months and would be the fastest human-made object of all time. There are many who believe this couldn't possibly be true though because at that speed the plate would have vaporized in the atmosphere just like a meteor or satellite re-entering the atmosphere at orbital velocity. So the mystery of Pascal B carries on. LINKS LINKS LINKS: Department of Defense film https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tLJg03WSYBQ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Plumbbob https://io9.gizmodo.com/no-a-nuclear-explosion-did-not-launch-a-manhole-cover-1715340946 https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/6n5yyy/the_pascalb_test_during_operation_plumbbob/ https://www.businessinsider.com/fastest-object-robert-brownlee-2016-2
Views: 220721 Joe Scott
5 Reasons Why You Wouldn't Exist Without The Moon | Answers With Joe
 
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We really take the moon for granted. But without it, we may not even exist. Here's 5 reasons why. Support the channel on Patreon: www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me @answerswithjoe at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe
Views: 29577 Joe Scott
Is There A Worldwide Consciousness? | Answers With Joe
 
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A worldwide experiment is taking place that may be providing evidence that on some level, consciousness interacts with the physical world. All about the Global Consciousness Project. Support Answers With Joe on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me @answerswithjoe on: Facebook Twitter Instagram Snapchat ================== Over 30 years, the PEAR lab at Princeton University and the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS) have been testing the theory that human consciousness can have an effect on real-world random and chaotic systems. Their findings seem to indicate that the effects are small, but measurable, when they monitor random number generators and look for higher than expected patterns in the randomness. This lead to the creation of the Global Consciousness Project, who have placed "EGGs" in cities around the world to monitor pattern variances in random number generators and find correlations with world events. Links to more information: The Global Consciousness Project website: http://global-mind.org/ Vice Article: http://www.vice.com/en_ca/read/this-ivy-league-physics-lab-believes-humans-have-mind-control-abilities-943 The PEAR Lab at Princeton http://www.princeton.edu/~pear/ Pear video https://vimeo.com/4359545 Through the Wormhole segment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_8xezQk-WVk News report https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itQMALL__bE Dean Radin (Head of IONS) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnvJfkI5NVc
Views: 97774 Joe Scott
Why Teleportation Would Most Likely Kill You | Answers With Joe
 
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Teleportation has been a staple of science fiction and futurism for decades. But is it all it's cracked up to be? Subscribe! http://www.answerswithjoe.com Follow me! Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter, Periscope, and Blab: @joescottwriter Instagram: @joescottcreative ================= From the story of Gil Perez in 1593 to the Philadelphia Experiment in 1943 to Star Trek, the idea of teleportation is one that captures our collective imaginations. But would the process of taking you apart atom by atom and reconstructing you on the other end have some serious unintended consequences? Check out these links below for more context on this subject: http://waitbutwhy.com/2014/12/what-makes-you-you.html Philadelphia Experiment: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Experiment http://io9.gizmodo.com/5944616/what-really-happened-during-the-philadelphia-experiment http://skepdic.com/philadel.html Stuff They Don’t Want You To Know https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQGQ8nrH0qY http://www.historicmysteries.com/gil-perez-and-his-spontaneous-teleportation/
Views: 99847 Joe Scott
Drake's Equation - A Deep Dive | Answers With Joe
 
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In 1961, astronomer Frank Drake came up with an equation to help determine how many intelligent alien civilizations exist in the universe. Here, we break down that equation and find that the questions it asks are endlessly fascinating. Subscribe - http://www.answerswithjoe.com Follow me! Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter, Periscope, and Blab: @joescottwriter Instagram: @joescottcreative Find more at these links! The first messages aliens will receive: http://www.realclearscience.com/blog/2013/09/will-hitler-be-the-first-person-that-aliens-see.html How many planets could have heard our radio signals: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/questions/question/1575/ The exoplanet archive: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu The Mediocrity Principle: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediocrity_principle The Rare Earth Hypothesis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_Earth_hypothesis Drake’s equation on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation Fermi and Drake info: TEDx talk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7vsxNqxGpyI VIDEOS: Formation of the moon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0FCE4H0Dro Plate tectonics: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ryrXAGY1dmE On Drake’s Equation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80Ryq6bH2aY Space Rip Birth of the Moon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGTBJHFNywI
Views: 108958 Joe Scott
Is Every Electron in the Universe The Same Electron? | Answers With Joe
 
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The One Electron Universe theory is exactly what it sounds like - the idea that every electron in the universe is the same electron. How could this be possible? Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe Get cool shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts LINKS LINKS LINKS https://io9.gizmodo.com/5876966/what-if-every-electron-in-the-universe-was-all-the-same-exact-particle PBS Spacetime https://youtu.be/9dqtW9MslFk TRANSCRIPT: One Electron Universe theory is exactly what it sounds like, it’s the theory that every electron in the universe is the same electron. If that sounds crazy, that’s because it is. The first rule of this video is to not take this too seriously, it’s really more of a thought experiment. It was first proposed by physicist John Archibald Wheeler in 1940 in a phone call to Richard Feynman, who eventually popularized the idea. Wheeler had been working on a problem that had plagued physicists for decades, which was the question of why all electrons have the same mass and the same spin. He considered the fact that electrons always move in a certain direction in an electromagnetic field due to their negative charge. Similarly, a positively charged electron, or a positron, would travel the opposite direction because of its positive charge. So he imagined if you recorded the motion of an electron on video and then played it backwards, it would behave just like a positron. In other words, if an electron were traveling backwards in time, it would basically be a positron. This idea of an electron traveling backwards and forwards in time took over. And he began to theorize that in such a case, the same electron would cross our timeline multiple times - and appear to us as the same electron. I have a feeling I may be losing some of you, let me grab a prop… (step off screen. Construction SFX. Come back with board) Okay, I put this board together to help explain this, it took everything I learned from engineering school... (BLACK SCREEN) Text: (Joe has never taken a single engineering class) (CAM A) And I spent a lot of time and money on this… (BLACK SCREEN) Text: ($6.79 at Home Depot) (CAM A) But I think this will help explain it. So on this board, the vertical axis is the progression of time and the black line is where we are right now, so technically, this line is moving slowly upward, but let’s ignore that for now. And this string represents an electron (wind the string across the nails) traveling back and forth across time. It travels one direction until a force acts on it and then it travels the other direction. Maybe the force acting on it is the beginning and the end of time in the universe. Who knows? But the point is it goes back and forth over and over again, crossing over our now line. (tie off the end) So what does this mean to us? Well, think back to that Flatland analogy and how they could only see in one plane, well we are the flatlanders of time if you will, and even though this electron has spanned the timeline of the universe an infinite number of times, we can only see it when it crosses our path, which in this case is 1, 2, 3 (count) 8 times. In actuality, this would be closer to infinity, but I only have so much string. So to us, we see an infinite number of electrons doing their electron thing, when in reality, they are all one electron all along. Meaning that you and I and everybody we know and everything we can touch and every planet and star and galaxy in the universe is made up of the exact same particles. Now, if you’re wondering how Wheeler may have come up with such a crazy idea, it might be because he was also the guy behind the delayed choice experiment. I talked about this way back in my double slit experiment video but to greatly simplify this, the delayed choice experiment was a variation on the double slit experiment that allows us to know whether a photon’s waveform collapses before it is observed. In other words, it behaves differently according to events that have not yet happened. Meaning quantum effects are not necessarily bound by time. This might also explain why we see quantum particles blink in and out of existence and cross physical barriers they’re not supposed to. Because they’re sliding back and forth across our timeline.
Views: 345881 Joe Scott
Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness | Answers With Joe
 
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As we get closer to artificial intelligence, we ask what exactly creates consciousness - and could computers do it? Support the channel on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe In this episode, we talk about Sir Roger Penrose and his illustrious career, and the partnership with Stuart Hameroff that produced the Orch-OR model of consciousness. We also talk about split-brain experiments that have produced our current understanding of the consciousness in the brain. LINK-A-PALOOZA! Books: The Emperor's New Mind: http://amzn.to/2akYDXA Shadows of the Mind: http://amzn.to/29HwXuw Who's In Charge: http://amzn.to/29TDAxc Other stuff: Stuff You Should Know Podcast on anesthesia: http://www.stuffyoushouldknow.com/podcasts/how-anesthesia-works/ Interview with Roger Penrose on quantum consciousness: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3WXTX0IUaOg Robot passing the Wise Man Test https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MceJYhVD_xY CGP Grey talks about split-brain experiments https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfYbgdo8e-8 Orchestrated Objective Reduction on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchestrated_objective_reduction A critical response to Roger Penrose: http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=2756 The movie, Unlimited, which I was hired to write: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2166291/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1
Views: 112093 Joe Scott
Can We Build A Ship As Fast As The Millennium Falcon? | Answers With Joe
 
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The Millennium Falcon is known as one of the fastest ships in the Star Wars galaxy. But how fast is it, and could we ever create a ship that rivals it? Check out the sweet Millennium Falcon Drone, over at Amazon: http://amzn.to/1m05I3U Subscribe - http://www.answerswithjoe.com Follow me! Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter, Periscope, and Blab: @joescottwriter Instagram: @joescottcreative Learn more at these links: Tor article on the speed of the Millennium Falcon: http://www.tor.com/2014/12/08/star-wars-how-fast-is-the-millennium-falcon/ Alcubierre on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcubierre_drive Sci Show video on the Alcubierre Drive https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7tU0H6rD-g Millennium Falcon drone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMfszvXvScA https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2014/06/11/this-is-the-amazing-design-for-nasas-star-trek-style-space-ship-the-ixs-enterprise/ Photo links: http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/dr-miguel-alcubierre-joins-as-an-honorary-member/ http://images.wisegeek.com/planet-jupiter-in-starry-space.jpg http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2013-03/faster-light-drive http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Harold_Sonny_White.jpg http://en.spaceengine.org/forum/17-1558-1 http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/a-ship-worth-fighting-for/
Views: 53720 Joe Scott
Things We Do Today That Will Look INSANE In The Future
 
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We think we're at the peak of human intelligence right now. But everyone throughout time thought so too. Here are a couple of things that people in the not so distant future will think are crazy about today. Jorge Soto's Ted talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/jorge_soto_the_future_of_early_cancer_detection?language=en Follow me! http://www.twitter.com/joescottwriter http://www.facebook.com/scottcreative http://everythingjoescott.tumblr.com/
Views: 89886 Joe Scott
The Top 5 Places We Could Colonize In Our Solar System | Answers With Joe
 
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For the human race to continue in the far future, we're going to have to live beyond planet Earth. Here are the 5 best options in our own solar system. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: https://www.inverse.com/article/30832-6-best-extraterrestrial-worlds-colonize-solar-system https://www.space.com/28788-living-on-titan-saturn-explained-infographic.html http://www.scifiideas.com/science-2/a-solution-for-long-term-living-on-low-gravity-planets/ https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast02aug_1 https://gizmodo.com/hubble-discovers-new-evidence-of-geyser-activity-on-eur-1787081944 https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/26700/how-long-does-it-take-for-radio-or-light-waves-to-travel-from-earth-to-jupiter PBS Spacetime on colonizing Venus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJ5KV3rzuag ==================== The 5 best options for colonizing in our solar system are: The moon Mars Europa Titan Venus The moon Gravity: 1/6 that of earth Air pressure: none Temperature: extreme (253 in sun, -253 in shade) - Why go - a place to launch to other places Orbiting at 2288 mph (3683 kph) - significant boost Advantages: Instant communication with Earth Good place to learn how to colonize where Experts are available 24/7 Advantages: Lighter gravity means we could build bigger there Advantages: could dome over craters to create housing Advantages: water ice in some pole craters One place we have talked a lot about is Mars Mars Gravity: Just over 1/3 (38%) Air Pressure: .6% if Earth’s Temperature: 70 in day (20C), -100 at night (-73C) Why go: Most comfortable temperature-wise and gravity-wise, but pressure is still abysmal Down-side: Thin atmosphere means not enough to support life but enough to make landings difficult. Terraforming option - most potential for terraforming. Melting ice caps could pump CO2 into the air and thicken the atmosphere as well as warm the planet Europa Gravity: 13% of Earth’s Air pressure: barely exists - mostly oxygen Temperature: -260F -160C This seems like a swing and a miss, but there’s something interesting under the surface of Europa Tidal heating causes a sea of liquid water beneath the surface. One of the best options for finding life in the solar system Underwater habitats might be the answer. Downside: radiation carried by Jupiter’s magnetic field would pose an issue Titan Gravity: 13% of Earth’s Air pressure: 1.5x that of Earth Temperature: -290F, -179C Of all the places in the solar system, Titan’s air pressure is most like Earth’s You could just walk around on the surface without a suit, except for the fact that it’s so cold methane flows in rivers. Could use the methane for fuel But I promised something controversial, and here it is, my personal favorite option for colonizing another planet… Venus. Venus Gravity: 91% of Earth’s Air Pressure: 100x that of Earth Temperature: 872F, 467C Now I know what you’re saying, you’re saying Joe, that only meets one of the three criteria, how can you possibly pick that as your number one? Because those numbers are for the planet’s surface. Up in the clouds, it’s a different story. Venus’ air pressure is insane. On the surface, it would crush you like a soda can. But about 50 kilometers up in the atmosphere, it’s about the same as here. Which means that just like a ship can float on top of the water, we could build colonies that float on the upper atmosphere of Venus. It would still be hot, but manageable. And I know people will always say, but what if you fall? Or if you drop something, you’ll never get it back. Well, I go back to the ship on the sea analogy. If you fall off the boat, you’re likely to drown. If you drop your phone over the side, you’ll never see it again. But we still have cruise ships carrying thousands of people and entire navies floating around out there. Plus the communication time would be smaller than anywhere else.
Views: 403143 Joe Scott
The First Second of Existence Was Insane | Answers With Joe
 
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The first five epochs of the big bang took place in the first second of existence, and they were so weird that they almost created a bizarre anti-universe. I talk about how we lucked out. The Big Bang Theory is by far the most accepted theory surrounding the origin of our universe - but it's not perfect. Here are 5 unsolved mysteries surrounding the Big Bang. If you'd like to support the show in exchange for exclusive perks, visit http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe. Also, follow me at answerswithjoe on: Facebook Twitter Snapchat Instagram ================== In the first second of existence, the universe went through 5 different epochs: The Grand Unification Epoch The Inflationary Epoch The Electroweak Epoch The Quark Epoch The Hadron Epoch Which ultimately created the particles and forces that make up our universe today. These particles went on to make hydrogen and helium atoms, which took 300 million years to turn into the first stars, a period in our universe often called The Dark Ages. These stars fused the lighter elements into heavier elements, which eventually led to planets, solar systems, and us. Click here for more details. http://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_bigbang_timeline.html
Views: 36134 Joe Scott
Voyager At 40: Humanity's Eternal Message In A Bottle | Answers With Joe
 
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Signup for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/k46J30f0VZD The Voyager space probes just turned 40 and are continuing to teach us about the universe. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe Get fun science-based shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. LINKS LINKS LINKS Animation of mission https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIvgoac4o_A Fraser Cain https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AbZ-6CcKw5M VSauce https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GDrBIKOR01c SpaceRip https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seXbrauRTY4 NASA Animation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l8TA7BU2Bvo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYNIsgDrIRE Mashable: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0iAGrdITIiE&t=1s Find all the Voyager images here: https://imgur.com/gallery/hq87T The Voyager probes launched in 1977, but the idea for their mission was conceived 13 years earlier, in 1964. Gary Flandro, an aerospace engineer working at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was tasked with finding ways of exploring the outer gas giants. While proposing different possible trajectories that could come up over the next 20 years, he noticed a rare alignment of the outer planets that was going to occur in the late 1970s. All four outer gas giants would line up in such a way that a single probe could slingshot past all four of them. This was a once every 175-year phenomena. So he created the Planetary Grand Tour - a plan to visit all four gas giants in one shot. Both probes lifted off in 1977, with Voyager 2 actually launching before Voyager 1, on August twentieth and September fifth, respectively. But they were named in the order of when they would reach the planets, and Voyager 1 would be traveling faster. Voyager 1 reached Jupiter on March 5, 1979, and Voyager 2 followed a few months later on July 9. Together, they discovered that Jupiter has a ring system and found active volcanos on Io, the first active volcano outside planet Earth ever discovered. They took detailed photos of the Great Red Spot and the clouds in the Jovian atmosphere, studied the cracks in the ice around Europa and took the first pictures of Ganymede. They also took detailed measurements of Jupiter’s gravitational field and the radiation it carries. Saturn Voyager 1 reached Saturn in November of 1980 and Voyager two followed in August of 1981. And this is where they parted ways. Mission scientists were extremely interested in studying the moon Titan after Pioneer 11 photographed a dense atmosphere and organic compounds. But in order to get a close look at Titan, it required a polar trajectory around Saturn, which means it would be slingshotted up and out of the elliptical plane. Making it impossible to continue on to the other planets. So Voyager 1 took one for the team and made Saturn the end of its planetary run. It passed 6400 kilometers behind Titan and studied the temperature and composition of its atmosphere. And then, after a close fly-by of Saturn, the gravity assist propelled Voyager 1 up and out of the elliptical plane faster than any other manmade object in history. Voyager 2 had some fireworks of its own when it snapped the Pale Blue Dot photo on request from Carl Sagan. This now iconic photo, taken as Voyager sped away from Saturn, shows Earth as a tiny point of light in the sky, or as Sagan said, a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam. Voyager 2 continued on to Uranus in January of 1986, and on to Neptune in January 1989. To this day, it is the only spacecraft that has visited either of these planets. At Neptune, Voyager 2 took a 30 degree turn south and continues to provide information about the sun’s magnetic field and the solar wind. In the north, Voyager 1’s enormous speed shot it further away from the sun than Pioneer 10, making it the furthest manmade object ever. And in 2012, NASA announced that Voyager 1 had officially entered the heliopause, the area where the sun’s solar wind meets the cosmic rays of interstellar space. Making it the first spacecraft to leave the solar system. There are only 5 spacecraft so far that will eventually leave the solar system, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, and the New Horizons spacecraft, and Voyager 1 is traveling faster than all of them. So unless we invent an interstellar warp drive, it will always be the furthest thing we have ever sent anywhere. Ever.
Views: 142792 Joe Scott
The Great Attractor - A Collaboration With Isaac Arthur | Answers With Joe
 
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You, me, and everyone in our galaxy is flying toward a single point in space, and nobody seems to know why. Get to know The Great Attractor. Take a deeper dive with Isaac Arthur for the 2nd half of this video: https://youtu.be/rbVoMaZwH4M Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS Universe Today on the Great Attractor http://www.universetoday.com/113150/what-is-the-great-attractor/# The Norma Supercluster https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norma_Cluster Digital Universe http://www.amnh.org/our-research/hayden-planetarium/digital-universe The Shapley Supercluster https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapley_Supercluster Sci Show on the Great Attractor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N9qeOhJ9dbg
Views: 60341 Joe Scott
The Mystery of Gravity | Answers With Joe
 
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Like my shirt? Get yours here! www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: Stress-Energy tensor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1AomGV0WHw Newton’s Cannonball https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymC6fuX03ns Vertasium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ztc6QPNUqls VSauce https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNqNnUJVcVs Gravity 3d animation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hH69B0Oc2Og Higgs field animation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ILLQUilpzg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity#Alternative_theories https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modified_Newtonian_dynamics https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropic_gravity https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chameleon_particle TRANSCRIPT: Of all the fundamental forces, Gravity is the most fundamental to our experience on this planet. We’ve always known that what goes up must come down, though we never really knew why. Aristotle believed that objects fell toward Earth because they wanted to move toward their “natural state”. Because Aristotle was wrong about everything. Galileo proved that objects fall at the same rate regardless of how heavy they are, and that they fall at a constant acceleration of 9.8 meters per second squared. Sir Isaac Newton was the first to grasp that gravity was an attractive force between objects with mass and was able to devise the equations around gravity that we still use today. Then Einstein redefined our understanding of gravity as a curvature in space-time caused by objects with mass. Now, a common misconception is that gravity doesn’t work in outer space because we always see astronauts in zero gravity. And if you’re anything like me, you grew up seeing this and just thought that the further you get away from the earth’s surface, the less gravity affects you, and that’s why astronauts get to float around all cool up there like that. But that’s not how it works. That’s not how any of this works. The reason these astronauts are floating is because they’re in orbit around the planet. And orbit is basically a state of always falling. So being on the ISS is basically like constantly being in an elevator that’s plummeting toward the ground. Some people, myself included, originally mistook the higgs boson as the force carrier for gravity because when you look at the standard model of particle physics, the other three fundamental forces all have force carrier particles called bosons. Specifically, photons, gluons, and w and z bosons. But the higgs boson is the force carrier of the higgs mechanism, which is a totally different thing. So I was wrong. I know, go figure. But because all the other forces have force carrier particles, it was assumed that gravity would as well, which scientists called the graviton. The graviton, if it exists, would be massless, because it works over unlimited distances, and would be a spin-2 boson, also known as a tensor boson. It’s been theorized a massless spin-2 field would give rise to a force indistinguishable from gravitation, because a massless spin-2 field would couple to the stress–energy tensor in the same way that gravitational interactions do. Gravitons also pose a problem with a mathematical issue called renormalization. These issues have spurred some researchers to look for answers outside of quantum field theory like in string theory. Some have tried to merge the supersymmetry found in string theory with general relativity in what they call Supergravity. In the 80’s a theory called Modified Newtonian Dynamics, or MOND was introduced which tries to explain the movement of stars in galaxies without the use of Dark Matter. Later, in 2004, MOND got modified further to create tensor-vector-scalar gravity which relies on a relativistic lagrangian density that maintains the law of conservation of energy. Another popular idea is Erik Verlinde’s entropic gravity, which argues that gravity is an emergent force that arises from entropy itself and not a fundamental force at all. And who can forget the chameleon particle theory, which has a variable effective mass that is an increasing function of the ambient energy density, meaning the particle’s mass changes to cause different effects on the particles around it. So strangely, the first force we were aware of has become the last to be fully understood. And the one that, if we do ever fully understand it, would unlock the secrets of the universe.
Views: 280132 Joe Scott
The Kardashev Scale | Answers With Joe
 
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When discussing topics like The Fermi Paradox, one of the measurements scientists use to classify potential alien civilizations is by using the Kardashev Scale, which is a fascinating look at potential advanced alien technologies as well as a road map to where we can go as a species here on Earth. Subscribe! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg Follow me! http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe http://www.twitter.com/joescottwriter http://www.everythingjoescott.tumblr.com ================== The Kardashev scale was created in 1964 by Russian astronomer Dimitri Kardashev, and it rates potential alien civilizations by the amount of energy they are able to utilize. Why energy usage? Because it’s an important indicator of how technologically advanced a species is. Take humans, for example, for hundreds of thousands of years, the most energy we were able to create was from burning things. As our technology advanced, so did our ability to harness energy, although we’ve mostly just made advancements in how we burn things, which is really kind-of embarrassing when you think about it. Kardashev hypothesized that there are three types of advanced civilizations, type 1 is able to harness all the energy on their home planet, type 2 can harness all the energy in their home star, and type 3 can harness all the energy in their galaxy. Let’s talk about these one at a time and see what they mean. (Type 1) So what does it mean to harness all the energy in your planet? It’s a lot more than just burning every last drop of oil out we’ve sucked out of the ground, it’s also harnessing every gust of wind, every ocean wave, every tide, every geothermal vent, and every last photon of sunlight that lands on Earth. Which scientists have calculated to be somewhere in the neighborhood of ten to the power of 17 watts. That’s ten with 17 zeroes behind it. Almost as much as my last electric bill. Of course, doing all that would make our planet unlivable, so how does a civilization become type one without destroying itself? Enter nuclear fusion. If you ever wondered why people make such a big deal about nuclear fusion, consider that to make that same amount of energy, you would need to fuse 280 kg of hydrogen into helium per second. At that rate, you would use 8.9 x10 to the 9th kilograms of hydrogen per year. That sounds like a lot, but you can pull more hydrogen than that out of 1 cubic kilometer of water. And our oceans hold 1.3 x 10 to the 9th number of cubic kilometers of water. So, we’ll run out about a trillion years after the sun explodes. Speaking of the sun... (Type 2) While the methods to become a type 1 civilization are not quite in our grasp, they at least seem feasible. To imagine a type 2 civilization, we have to get a little more imaginative. The most widely-known option to collect all the energy from a star is a Dyson sphere. This idea was proposed by Freeman Dyson in 1960, and it involves building a massive sphere around a star to collect all or most of its energy. Freeman Dyson is still around, by the way, 91 years old and still kicking, good show old chap. Such a massive structure would require more materials and manpower than we could ever find here on Earth, but some have suggested self-replicating robots could mine the solar system and construct it on its own. Especially if it was controlled by an artificial super intelligence here on Earth… just sayin’... It’s not too far-fetched, really, in fact, many scientists are looking for stars that show signs of interruptions in the light patterns that could signal dyson spheres. Other ideas involve actually throwing a star into a black hole and then collecting the energy from the accretion disk that forms during what’s called the Penrose Process, which causes the black hole to lose some of it’s angular momentum, which could possibly cause it to eventually lose its rotation and become a Swarzchild black hole. And I have no idea what any of that means. But if the idea of throwing a star into a black hole sounds looney toons, a type 3 civilization is crazyville. (Type 3) How in the name of Xenu, does a species extract all of the energy in a galaxy? Well, you can put dyson spheres around every star in a galaxy… That’s only 100 billion or so of them. Or, you could tap the energy of a supermassive black hole, which most galaxies have in the center, Gamma ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe, you could tap that, And there’s a theoretical white hole, that spews matter and energy out of a singularity that you could collect all the energy out of... Pretty much when you start talking about type 3 civilizations, you’re just playing around in science fiction territory, which is what makes it fun.
Views: 72937 Joe Scott
4 Fusion Breakthroughs From The Last Year | Answers With Joe
 
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Try Brilliant's Daily Problems and get 20% off if you go to http://www.brilliant.org/answerswithjoe Nuclear Fusion is the holy grail of energy, and getting closer to reality every year. Here are some of the biggest breakthroughs in fusion power over the last year. Previous Fusion video: https://youtu.be/KZm_mpbKX5c Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get cool nerdy t-shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Become a channel member and get access to exclusive livestreams and content here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg/join Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe Some of this year's breakthroughs include: China's EAST tokamak reactor achieved a 100 million degree plasma for 10 seconds, a record for that temperature. RF beams used to stabilize plasma by reducing magnetic bubbles that can cause plasma to destabilize. TAE announces their Copernicus reactor - a scaled-up version of their Norman reactor that has proven successful enough to raise $500 million from companies like Google and Microsoft. Physicists attempt a reverse D configuration in a tokamak and achieve more stable plasma LINKS LINKS LINKS: EAST Reactor: https://newatlas.com/fusion-china-artificial-sun-east/57237/ RF Waves: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-scientists-stabilizes-fusion-plasmas.html https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2019/01/14/is-fusion-power-within-our-grasp/#1903ef949bb4 TAE's Copernicus: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TAE_Technologies "Reverse D": https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/03/physicists-flip-the-d-in-tokamak-get-unexpectedly-good-result/
Views: 471341 Joe Scott
LIGO And The Discovery of Gravitational Waves | Answers With Joe
 
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Albert Einstein theorized the presence of gravitational waves nearly 100 years ago, but even he thought they would be impossible to find. In February of 2016, all that changed. Subscribe! http://www.answerswithjoe.com Follow me! Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter, Periscope, and Blab: @joescottwriter Instagram: @joescottcreative ================= In 1992, teams from CalTech and MIT designed LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The mission of LIGO was to detect tiny fluctuations in spacetime caused by massive objects in the universe colliding and exploding, sending ripples of gravity in their wake. LIGO went online in 2002, but never detected anything. It was refurbished in 2010 to be 4 times more sensitive, and after 5 years of improvements, came back online in 2015. This time, they almost immediately picked up a signal. Afte 5 months of sifting through the data to make sure it's correct, LIGO scientists announced their findings on February 11th, 2016. This did far more than just confirm one of Einstein's theories, it also opens up a new window on the universe and was the first time anything has been detected using something other than light. It is literally creating an entirely new field of astronomy. ================ LINKS: http://www.iflscience.com/space/gravitational-waves-observed-first-time http://www.sciencealert.com/watch-this-is-what-gravitational-waves-sound-like LIGO Wave animation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWJJeJAUdfM https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/what-are-gw http://www.space.com/31922-gravitational-waves-detection-what-it-means.html
Views: 31786 Joe Scott
Would Humans Have Survived Without Dogs? | Answers With Joe
 
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Get two months of Skillshare for free: https://skl.sh/joescott6 Humans and dogs go way back, and share a connection unlike any other animal. So much that we may not have survived without them. Got a dog? Visit the McCann Dogs YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/McCannDogs Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get cool nerdy t-shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Interested in getting a Tesla? Use my referral link and get discounts and perks: https://ts.la/joe74700 Become a channel member and get access to exclusive livestreams and content here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg/join Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: https://thebark.com/content/whats-point https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/oct/19/dogs-have-pet-facial-expressions-to-use-on-humans-study-finds http://time.com/5342964/human-bond-dog-thoughts/
Views: 108784 Joe Scott
The Great Filter - A Return to the Fermi Paradox
 
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Here I return to the Fermi Paradox and go a little more in depth to talk about The Great Filter - one of the explanations for the Fermi Paradox which says that along the road to intelligent life, there are barriers that prevent advancement. In one instance, we've already passed the Great Filter. In the other, it lies ahead of us. Both depressing scenarios in different ways.
Views: 36262 Joe Scott
The Four Fundamental Forces - And Maybe a Fifth? | Answers With Joe
 
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Just about everything you ever wanted to know about the Standard Model of Particle Physics and the Fundamental Forces that guide them. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: Possible Discovery of a 5th Force http://www.space.com/33750-fifth-force-of-nature-dark-matter.html Mental Floss on the Possible 5th Force http://mentalfloss.com/article/84959/physicists-believe-theyve-discovered-fifth-fundamental-force-universe Ted Ed Higgs Field https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=joTKd5j3mzk Quantum Chromodynamics https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_chromodynamics Peter Higgs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Higgs PBS Space Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MuvwcsfXIIo Sci Show Series https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yv3EMq2Dgq8&list=PLsNB4peY6C6JDc1HcVKjjYzVB0BYEXexd The origin of mass https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JBhAjTpx_Os World Science Festival https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tcHz3o4t6Rk
Views: 142189 Joe Scott
Vacuum Decay: The Quantum Glitch That Could Destroy The Universe | Answers With Joe
 
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It's the ultimate nightmare scenario: A bubble in spacetime that grows at the speed of light and eventually destroys the universe. That's vacuum decay. Get the shirt! http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe =============== LINKS LINKS LINKS Fermilab https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FBeALt3rxEA TED https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8z6HfSq7l8 Kurzgesagt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijFm6DxNVyI Veritasium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g20JZ2HNZaw =============== TRANSCRIPT: Try to imagine somewhere in the universe, a tiny subatomic bubble formed. A bubble inside which all physics as we know it ceases to exist. Particles don’t form into atoms, atoms can’t turn into molecules, all the fundamental forces cease to have any meaning. And then that bubble expands outward at the speed of light, obliterating everything it touches. Asteroids, comets, planets, stars, whole galaxies just dissipate immediately, their constituent particles flung apart like ashes in the wind. Until eventually the entire universe ceases to exist. This is a real thing that could happen, spontaneously at any time and at any point in the universe. In fact, it could have already happened, and we’d have no way of knowing it. Because it travels at the speed of light, the first sign we’d get that it happened would be us and everything we know blinking out of existence in a fraction of a second. This is vacuum decay. And to understand how this could happen, there are three concepts we need to understand. The first is standard model of particle physics. I did a whole video on the standard model that I’ll share right here, so I won’t go too in the weeds about this but a quick overview is that all atoms are made up of fundamental particles that fall into 3 categories, leptons, quarks, and bosons. Leptons are our electrons and neutrinos in their various flavors, quarks make up protons and neutrons, and bosons are force carrier particles, they make the four fundamental forces possible. But the final piece of the standard model that we know of so far anyway was the famed Higgs boson. But the Higgs boson is actually just a tiny chunk of the Higgs Field. Which brings us to the second concept we need to understand… Quantum field theory. So I’ve never really done a video on Quantum field theory, so that’s long overdue, but basic gist of it is that all of the particles I just mentioned are actually just excitations in a corresponding field. In other words, reality as we know it is made up of layers of fields of different energy levels. You’ve got quark fields, electron fields, neutrino fields, boson fields, and most important for this discussion, the Higgs field. When the Higgs field was predicted, by the illustrious Peter Higgs, it was calculated at a very specific energy level. Any higher or lower and physics as we know it cease to exist. 126 GeV is a tiny amount of energy to us, but as particles and fields go, it’s pretty high. Scientists began to wonder if this was really as low as it could go. And with a little fancy math, scientists at CERN in 2013 were able to prove that there is, theoretically, a lower energy level that the Higgs field could exist in. An ultra-dense Higgs field. This means that the Higgs field that keeps the entire universe together is not a stable true vacuum, it’s a metastable false vacuum. Which means that if at any place in the universe a tiny part of the Higgs field slipped down into this energy level, entropy would take over and the entire Higgs field would collapse into the ultra dense state.
Views: 329143 Joe Scott
Is Earth's Magnetic Field About To Flip? | Random Thursday
 
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The Earth's magnetic north pole is on the move. In fact, it's moving faster than we've ever seen, and it may indicate that a major change is on the way for the planet. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get cool nerdy t-shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Become a channel member and get access to exclusive livestreams and content here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-2YHgc363EdcusLIBbgxzg/join Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe
Views: 155523 Joe Scott
Bill Gates' Terrapower Project And The Traveling Wave Reactor | Answers With Joe
 
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You can get a free quote at http://lumerit.com/answerswithjoe . It’s the easy way to find out how much college will cost you, and what earning your degree will look like. Bill Gates has become one of the most powerful philanthropists in the world through the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation, and one of the projects he's supported is a company called Terrapower, which is researching and building a new type of nuclear reactor, known as the Traveling Wave Reactor, that could provide 80% of our energy needs for the next 1000 years. Here's Bill Gates' Ted Talk: Innovating to Zero: https://youtu.be/JaF-fq2Zn7I Get a T-shirt! http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe
Views: 99163 Joe Scott
Where Is All The Antimatter? | Answers With Joe
 
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Every time a particle is created, a corresponding anti-particle is also created. So where is all the antimatter? Today I discuss some theories. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS TED Ed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CtR5EkvLNfg Veritasium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g20JZ2HNZaw http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/11/04/454594496/physicists-probe-antimatter-for-clues-of-how-it-all-began http://www.symmetrymagazine.org/article/april-2015/ten-things-you-might-not-know-about-antimatter https://futurism.com/new-proposal-matter-won-war-antimatter/
Views: 101913 Joe Scott
The Fringe Theory That Could Disprove Dark Matter | Answers With Joe
 
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Create a daily learning habit. Sign up at http://www.brilliant.org/answerswithjoe for 20% off a premium subscription. Quantized Inertia is a type of modified relativity theory that explains inertia as a fundamental force of the universe that could do everything from explain the rotation of galaxies without using Dark Matter, to the expansion of the universe without Dark energy, and may even allow anti-gravity propulsion. If it's true, that is. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Get cool nerdy t-shirts at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Thinking of getting a Tesla? Get free stuff if you use my referral code: https://ts.la/joe74700 Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe ================= LINKS LINKS LINKS: Mike McCulloch's paper on Quantized Inertia: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1302.2775.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantized_inertia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rindler_coordinates https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unruh_effect https://resonance.is/pseudoscience-vs-novel-theories-critical-examination-quantized-inertia/ http://physicsfromtheedge.blogspot.com/ https://www.americanscientist.org/article/the-forgotten-mystery-of-inertia Sixty Symbols on the Casimir Effect: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRcmqZkGOK4 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-the-casimir-effec/ PBS Space Time on the Unruh Effect: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cj6oiFDEXc PBS Space Time on Hawking Radiation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG-xu5H6plk
Views: 327345 Joe Scott
Tabby's Star - A Mystery Finally Solved? | Answers With Joe
 
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Tabby's Star, or KIC 8462852, took the internet by storm when it was speculated that it could be the home of an alien megastructure. But recent research seems to shed more light on the mystery. Check out the TED talk by Tabetha Boyajian here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gypAjPp6eps Get your I Want To Believe shirt at: http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS: SciShow Space on Tabby's Star: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULF_sn6vy54 Isaac Arthur on Tabby's Star: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVCpBr3fxdE Seeker on Tabby's Star: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XDS_aTVBrE
Views: 277833 Joe Scott
The Wow Signal - Actual Proof Of Alien Life? | Answers With Joe
 
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Signup for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/scEe30f0W0Z The Wow Signal is a 72-second radio burst that was recorded in 1977 that has defied explanation for 40 years, leading many to believe it might be proof of intelligent life. Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe Get my T-shirt at http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts ============ The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. ============ LINKS LINKS LINKS: SciShow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0rByLgRdLM Fraser Cain https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDT8xDtliS8 Graph: By Maxrossomachin - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16197844 https://www.livescience.com/59442-astronomers-skeptical-about-wow-signal.html ============ TRANSCRIPT: SETI, or the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, has access to telescopes all around the world, constantly scanning the sky for signals of alien communication. Processing all of this information is a gargantuan task that would require a massive supercomputer that SETI can’t quite afford. So they came up with a brilliant idea. It’s called SETI at home. It’s a program you can install on your computer that processes tiny parts of that data in the background. Spreading that data across thousands of computers around the world, they’re able to crank through mountains of information, without the mountainous cost of a supercomputer. But back in the 70’s none of that existed. Signals from space had to be printed out and processed by hand. Which is exactly what astronomer Jerry Ehman was doing on August 18th, 1977. He was going over reams of printouts when he found a massive spike in a certain frequency of radio wave. It was a spike 30 times higher than the background noise, and it was so noteworthy, he literally wrote “Wow” on the page. It has since become known as the wow signal, and it’s still confusing scientists 40 years later. The Big Ear went into operation in 1963 and was initially put to use on the Ohio Sky Survey, which catalogued nearly 20,000 sources of radio waves between 1965 and 1971. Since it was on the ground, the telescope basically used the rotation of the Earth to scan across the sky. When it measured a radio signal, they could infer by the time of day what direction the telescope was pointing and match that with visual sky surveys to figure out what star or galaxy it came from. In 1956 on the grounds of Ohio Wesleyan University, construction crews broke ground on a massive telescope the size of three football fields to monitor the sky for radio signals from deep space. It was officially known as the Ohio State University Radio Observatory, because it was actually run by Ohio State, but it was more well known by its nickname. The Big Ear. The Big Ear went into operation in 1963 and was initially put to use on the Ohio Sky Survey, which catalogued nearly 20,000 sources of radio waves between 1965 and 1971. Since it was on the ground, the telescope basically used the rotation of the Earth to scan across the sky. When it measured a radio signal, they could infer by the time of day what direction the telescope was pointing and match that with visual sky surveys to figure out what star or galaxy it came from. So a popular misconception with the wow signal is that 6EQUJ5 is some kind of alien code that we received but it’s actually just a measure of signal strength. Ehrman and others immediately started pointing telescopes at the spot where the signal originated, which is in the constellation Sagittarius, but nothing has ever shown up. So, it’s not a star or galaxy or pulsar or black hole because we’d pick up more signals from that location. As far as we know, and we’ve looked there a lot at this point, there’s nothing there. At least, no cosmic body that would normally produce a radio stream like that. But the mystery actually gets deeper. Because the frequency that this signal was found on was 1420 MHz. And if you were paying attention in last week’s video about the Voyager missions, 1420 mHz is the frequency that hydrogen atoms expel photons during hyperfine transitions. (also known as 21-centimeter line or hydrogen line) This same frequency was used by Carl Sagan and Frank Drake when creating the Pioneer and Voyager plaques as a way to communicate with an alien species should they ever come across the spacecraft.
Views: 212067 Joe Scott
Three Interesting Facts that Blow My Mind
 
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There are things you learn as you get older and some of those things are fascinating. In this video, I talk about three facts that blow my mind. Did you know the world is running out of helium? Did you know that most of the world's helium is kept in a hole in the ground? I never thought about where helium comes from or where it goes, and when I found out, I was amazed. Forks. You eat them every day, and if you're like me, you assume they've always been around. Not so. Find out what people used to use to eat with up until just 150 years ago. And find out about the Sentinelese, the most isolated people on the planet. They've been stranded on an island in the Bay of Bengal since well before recorded history, and have never opened up to outsiders even once. Everything about them is a mystery.
Views: 161359 Joe Scott
The Sad Tale of William James Sidis - The Smartest Man Who Ever Lived | Random Thursday
 
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What were you doing at age 6? William James Sidis was writing books in 7 different languages. Once a nationally known child prodigy, William Sidis disappeared and lived a life of obscurity. What happened to the smartest man who ever lived? Special thanks to Jason at JTheory for his help writing this video! Visit his channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCS-unRLB5LMrvhi66k4bjig Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe
Views: 780271 Joe Scott
Is This Geometric Structure The Theory Of Everything? | Answers With Joe
 
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For 100 years, scientists have been searching for the "Theory of Everything", the elusive link between the physics of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. A team of researchers believe they may have the key, and it all lies in a geometrical design. Get cool T-shirts here! http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe Garrett Lisi's work in particle physics led him to find patterns in the geometry that led him to discover an 8-dimensional crystalline structure called the E8 Lie Group. He used this to predict the existence of particles that he believes account for the force of gravity. Klee Irwin and the Quantum Gravity Research team have taken this and constructed a theory about the nature of reality itself all the way down to the plank length, where reality breaks down into pixellated tetrahedrons that through emergence theory has created a universal consciousness. LINKS LINKS LINKS: Hacking Reality: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJi3_znm7ZE What is reality? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0ztlIAYTCU Fermilab https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CbPWYjnQIO8 TED - Garrett Lisi https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-Gk_Ddhr0M TED - Garrett Lisi explaining the basics of plotting particles on the graphs that lead to E8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfALJzn1hE8 Useful Scientific American Article https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/garrett-lisi-e8-theory/
Views: 460928 Joe Scott
Ion Drives And Electric Propulsion | Answers With Joe
 
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Go to http://www.audible.com/joescott or text "joescott" to 500500 to start your free 30-day trial. Ion drives are a type of propulsion that provides a very small amount of force over a very long period of time, giving it the ability to build up to incredibly fast speeds. Cool, fun, nerdy T-shirts at the shop - go check them out! http://www.answerswithjoe.com/shirts Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe Follow me at all my places! Instagram: https://instagram.com/answerswithjoe Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/answerswithjoe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/answerswithjoe Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/answerswithjoe LINKS LINKS LINKS NASA documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pV5i_X1M77Q Universe Today https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6H0qsqZjLW0 Scott Manley on ion drives https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cb_U_CbQ5sc
Views: 159092 Joe Scott

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